Economy of Cuba
|Currency||Cuban peso (CUP) = 100 cents and Cuban Convertible Peso (CUC) = 25 CUP|
|Upper-middle income economy|
GDP per capita
GDP per capita rank
|0.777 high (2017) (73rd)|
|Unemployment||2.6% (2017 est.)[note 3]|
|petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar|
|Exports||$2.63 billion (2017 est.)|
|petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus, coffee|
Main export partners
|Imports||$11.06 billion (2017 est.)|
|petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals|
Main import partners
|$985.4 million (2017 est.)|
Gross external debt
|$30.06 billion (31 December 2017 est.)|
|47.7% of GDP (2017 est.)|
|−10.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)|
|Revenues||54.52 billion (2017 est.)|
|Expenses||64.64 billion (2017 est.)|
|Economic aid||$88 million (2005 est.)|
|$11.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)|
The economy of Cuba is a planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises. The government of Cuba owns and operates most industries and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the ruling Communist Party of Cuba encouraged the formation of worker co-operatives and self-employment.
As of 2000[update], public-sector employment was 76% and private-sector employment (mainly composed of self-employment) was 23% - compared to the 1981 ratio of 91% to 8%. Investment is restricted and requires approval by the government. The government sets most prices and rations goods to citizens. In 2016 Cuba ranked 68th out of 182 countries, with a Human Development Index of 0.775, much higher than its GDP per capita rank (95th). As of 2012[update], the country's public debt comprised 35.3% of GDP, inflation (CDP) was 5.5%, and GDP growth was 3%.
Housing and transportation costs are low. Cubans receive government-subsidized education, healthcare and food subsidies.
The country achieved a more even distribution of income after the Cuban Revolution of 1953-1959, which was followed by an economic embargo by the United States (1960- ). During the Cold War period, the Cuban economy was heavily dependent on subsidies from the Soviet Union, valued at $65 billion in total from 1960 to 1990 (over three times as the entirety of U.S. economic aid to Latin America), an average of $2.17 billion a year. This accounted for anywhere between 10% and 40% of Cuban GDP, depending on the year. While the massive Soviet subsidies did enable Cuba's enormous state budget, they did not lead to a more advanced or sustainable Cuban economy; although described by economists as "a relatively highly developed Latin American export economy" in 1959 and the early 1960s, Cuba's basic economic structure changed very little between then and 1990. Tobacco products such as cigars and cigarettes were the only manufactured products among Cuba's leading exports, and even these were produced by a preindustrial process. The Cuban economy remained inefficient and over-specialized in a few highly subsidized commodities provided by the Soviet bloc countries. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba's GDP declined by 33% between 1990 and 1993, partially due to the loss of Soviet subsidies and a crash in sugar prices in the early 1990s. It rebounded in the early 2000s due to a combination of marginal liberalization of the economy and heavy subsidies from the friendly socialist government of Venezuela, which provided Cuba with low-cost oil and other subsidies worth up to 12% of Cuban GDP annually. Cuba retains high levels of healthcare and education.
- 1 History
- 2 Sectors
- 3 Poverty
- 4 Public facilities
- 5 Connection with Venezuela
- 6 Economic freedom
- 7 Taxes and revenues
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Before the Revolution
Although Cuba belonged to the high-income countries of Latin America since the 1870s, income inequality was high, accompanied by capital outflows to foreign investors. The country's economy had grown rapidly in the early part of the century, fueled by the sale of sugar to the United States.
Prior to the Cuban Revolution, Cuba ranked fifth in the hemisphere in per capita income, third in life expectancy, second in per capita ownership of automobiles and telephones, first in the number of television sets per inhabitant. Its income per capita in 1929 was reportedly 41% of the U.S., thus higher than in Mississippi and South Carolina.
Its proximity to the United States made it a familiar holiday destination for wealthy Americans. Their visits for gambling, horse racing and golfing made tourism an important economic sector. Tourism magazine Cabaret Quarterly described Havana as "a mistress of pleasure, the lush and opulent goddess of delights." According to Perez, "Havana was then what Las Vegas has become."  Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista had plans to line the Malecon, Havana's famous walkway by the water, with hotels and casinos to attract even more tourists. Today Hotel Havana Riviera is the only hotel that was built before the revolutionary government took control.
Cuba had a one-crop economy (sugar cane) whose domestic market was constricted. Its population was characterized by chronic unemployment and deep poverty. United States monopolies like Bethlehem Steel Corporation and Speyer gained control over valuable national resources. The banks and the country's entire financial system, all electric power production and the majority of the industry was dominated by U.S. companies. U.S. monopolies owned 25 percent of the best land in Cuba. More than 80 percent of farmland was owned by sugar and livestock-raising large landowners. 90 percent of the country's raw sugar and tobacco exports was exported to the U.S. In 1956, U.S.-owned companies controlled "90 percent of the telephone and electric services, about 50 percent in public service railways, and roughly 40 percent in raw sugar production" according to a report published by the Department of Commerce. The gains from these investments were reaped by American businessmen leading to discontent among the Cuban people.
In the 1950s, most Cuban children were not in school. 87 percent of urban homes had electricity, but only 10 percent of rural homes did. Only 15 percent of rural homes had running water. Nearly half the rural population was illiterate as was about 25 percent of the total population. Poverty and unemployment in rural areas triggered migration to Havana. More than 40 percent of the Cuban workforce in 1958 were either underemployed or unemployed.
On March 3, 1959, Fidel Castro seized control of the Cuban Telephone Company, which was a subsidiary of the International Telephone and Telecommunications Corporation. This was the first of many nationalizations made by the new government, the assets seized totaled US$9 billion.
After the 1959 Revolution, citizens were not required to pay a personal income tax (their salaries being regarded as net of any taxes). The government also began to subsidize healthcare and education for all citizens; this action created strong national support for the new revolutionary government.
After the USSR and Cuba reestablished their diplomatic relations in May 1960, the USSR began to buy Cuban sugar in exchange for oil. When oil refineries like, Shell, Texaco, and Esso refused to refine Soviet oil, Castro nationalized that industry as well, taking over the refineries on the island. Days later in response, the United States cut the Cuban Sugar Quota completely, Eisenhower was quoted saying "This action amounts to economic sanctions against, Cuba. Now we must look ahead to other moves - economic, diplomatic, and strategic".
On February 7, 1962, Kennedy expanded the United States' embargo to cover almost all U.S. imports.
In 1970, Fidel Castro attempted to motivate the Cuban people to harvest 10 million tons of sugar, in Spanish known as La Zafra, in order to increase their exports and grow their economy. With the help of the majority of the Cuban population, the country was able to produce 7.56 million tons of sugar. In July 1970, after the harvest was over, Castro took responsibility for the failure and later that same year he blamed the Sugar Industry Minister saying “Those technocrats, geniuses, super-scientists assured me that they knew what to do in order to produce the ten million tons. But it was proven, first, that they did not know how to do it and, second, that they exploited the rest of the economy by receiving large amounts of resources . . . while there are factories that could have improved with a better distribution of those resources that were allocated to the Ten-Million-Ton plan”.
During the Revolutionary period, Cuba was one of the few developing countries to provide foreign aid to other countries. Foreign aid began with the construction of six hospitals in Peru in the early 1970s. It expanded later in the 1970s to the point where some 8000 Cubans worked in overseas assignments. Cubans built housing, roads, airports, schools and other facilities in Angola, Ethiopia, Laos, Guinea, Tanzania and other countries. By the end of 1985, 35,000 Cuban workers had helped build projects in some 20 Asian, African and Latin American countries.
The Cuban gross domestic product declined at least 35% between 1989 and 1993 due to the loss of 80% of its trading partners[clarification needed] and Soviet subsidies. This loss of subsidies coincided with a collapse in world sugar prices. Sugar had done well from 1985–90 and crashed precipitously in 1990–91 and did not recover for five years. Cuba had been insulated from world sugar prices by Soviet price guarantees. However, the Cuban economy began to boost again following a rapid improvement in trade and diplomatic relations between Cuba and Venezuela following the election of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in 1998, who became Cuba's most important trading partner and diplomatic ally.
This era was referred to as the "Special Period in Peacetime" later shortened to "Special Period". A Canadian Medical Association Journal paper claimed that "The famine in Cuba during the Special Period was caused by political and economic factors similar to the ones that caused a famine in North Korea in the mid-1990s, on the grounds that both countries were run by authoritarian regimes that denied ordinary people the food to which they were entitled to when the public food distribution collapsed and priority was given to the elite classes and the military." Other reports painted an equally dismal picture, describing Cubans having to resort to eating anything they could find, from Havana Zoo animals to domestic cats. But although the collapse of centrally planned economies in the Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc subjected Cuba to severe economic difficulties, which led to a drop in calories per day from 3052 in 1989 to 2600 in 2006, mortality rates were not strongly affected thanks to the priority given on maintaining a social safety net.
The government undertook several reforms to stem excess liquidity, increase labor incentives and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods and services. To alleviate the economic crisis, the government introduced a few market-oriented reforms including opening to tourism, allowing foreign investment, legalizing the U.S. dollar and authorizing self-employment for some 150 occupations. (This policy was later partially reversed, so that while the U.S. dollar is no longer accepted in businesses, it remains legal for Cubans to hold the currency.) These measures resulted in modest economic growth. The liberalized agricultural markets introduced in October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell above-quota production at free market prices, broadened legal consumption alternatives and reduced black market prices.
Government efforts to lower subsidies to unprofitable enterprises and to shrink the money supply caused the semi-official exchange rate for the Cuban peso to move from a peak of 120 to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to 21 to the dollar by year-end 1999. The drop in GDP apparently halted in 1994, when Cuba reported 0.7% growth, followed by increases of 2.5% in 1995 and 7.8% in 1996. Growth slowed again in 1997 and 1998 to 2.5% and 1.2% respectively. One of the key reasons given was the failure to notice that sugar production had become uneconomic. Reflecting on the Special period Cuban president Fidel Castro later admitted that many mistakes had been made, "The country had many economists and it is not my intention to criticize them, but I would like to ask why we hadn’t discovered earlier that maintaining our levels of sugar production would be impossible. The Soviet Union had collapsed, oil was costing $40 a barrel, sugar prices were at basement levels, so why did we not rationalize the industry?" Living conditions in 1999 remained well below the 1989 level.
Due to the continued growth of tourism, growth began in 1999 with a 6.2% increase in GDP. Growth then picked up, with a growth in GDP of 11.8% in 2005 according to government figures. In 2007 the Cuban economy grew by 7.5%, higher than the Latin American average. Accordingly, the cumulative growth in GDP since 2004 stood at 42.5%.[clarification needed]
However, from 1996, the State started to impose income taxes on self-employed Cubans. Cuba ranked third in the region in 1958 in GDP per capita, surpassed only by Venezuela and Uruguay. It had descended to 9th, 11th or 12th place in the region by 2007. Cuban social indicators suffered less.
Every year the United Nations holds a vote asking countries to choose if the United States is justified in their economic embargo against Cuba and whether it should be lifted. 2016 was the first year that the United States abstained from the vote, rather than voting no, "since 1992 the US and Israel have constantly voted against the resolution – occasionally supported by the Marshall Islands, Palau, Uzbekistan, Albania and Romania".
Either we change course or we sink.
In 2011, "The new economic reforms were introduced, effectively creating a new economic system, referred by some as the "New Cuban Economy" Since then, over 400,000 Cubans have signed up to be entrepreneurs. As of 2012, the government lists 181 official jobs no longer under their control—such as taxi driver, construction worker and shopkeeper. Workers must purchase licenses to work for some roles, such as a mule driver, palm tree trimmer, or well-digger. Despite these openings, Cuba maintains nationalized companies for the distribution of all essential amenities (water, power, ...) and other essential services to ensure a healthy population (education, health care).
Around 2000, half the country's sugar mills closed. Prior to reforms, imports were double exports, doctors earned £15 per month and families supplemented incomes with extra jobs. After reforms, more than 150,000 farmers could lease land from the government for surplus crop production. Before reforms, the only real-estate transactions were home-owners were swapping properties; post-reform legalized buying and selling then created a real-estate boom in the country. In 2012, a Havana fast-food burger/pizza restaurant, La Pachanga, started in the owner's home; it now serves 1,000 meals on a Saturday at £3 each. Tourists can now ride factory steam locomotives through closed sugar mills
In 2008, Raúl Castro's administration hinted that the purchase of computers, DVD players and microwaves would become legal.[needs update] However, monthly wages remain less than 20 U.S. dollars. Mobile phones, which had been restricted to Cubans working for foreign companies and government officials, were legalized in 2008.
In 2010, Fidel Castro, in agreement with Raúl Castro's reformist sentiment, admitted that the Cuban model based on the old Soviet model of centralized planning was no longer sustainable. They encouraged the creation of a co-operative variant of socialism where the state plays a less active role in the economy and the formation of worker-owned co-operatives and self-employment enterprises.
To remedy Cuba's economic structural distortions and inefficiencies, the Sixth Congress approved expansion of the internal market and access to global markets on April 18, 2011. A comprehensive list of changes is:
- Expenditure adjustments (education, healthcare, sports, culture)
- Change in the structure of employment; reduce inflated payrolls and increase work in the non-state sector.
- Legalizing of 201 different personal business licenses
- Fallow state land in usufruct leased to residents
- Incentives for non-state employment, as a re-launch of self-employment
- Proposals for creation of non-agricultural cooperatives
- Legalization of sale and private ownership of homes and cars
- Greater autonomy for state firms
- Search for food self-sufficiency, gradual elimination of universal rationing and change to targeting poorest population
- Possibility to rent state-run enterprises to self-employed, among them state restaurants
- Separation of state and business functions
- Tax policy update
- Easier travel for Cubans
- Strategies for external debt restructuring
On December 20, 2011 a new credit policy allowed Cuban banks to finance entrepreneurs and individuals wishing to make major purchases to do home improvements in addition to farmers. "Cuban banks have long provided loans to farm cooperatives, they have offered credit to new recipients of farmland in usufruct since 2008 and in 2011 they began making loans to individuals for business and other purposes".
The system of rationed food distribution in Cuba was known as the Libreta de Abastecimiento ("Supplies booklet"). As of 2012 ration books at bodegas still procured rice, oil, sugar and matches, above government average wage £15 monthly.
On 22 October 2013 the dual currency system was set to be ended eventually. As of 2018, the dual currency was still being used in Cuba.
The achievements of the radical social policy of socialist Cuba, which enabled social advancement for the formerly underprivileged classes, were curbed by the economic crisis and the low wages of recent decades. The socialist leadership is reluctant to tackle this problem because it touches a core aspect of its revolutionary legitimacy. As a result, Cuba's National Bureau of Statistics (ONE) publishes little data on the growing socio-economic divide. A nationwide scientific survey shows that social inequalities have become increasingly visible in everyday life and that the Afro-Cuban population is structurally disadvantaged. The report notes that while 58 percent of white Cubans have incomes of less than $ 3,000 a year, among Afro-Cubans that proportion reaches 95 percent. Afro-Cubans, moreover, receive a very limited portion of family remittances from the Cuban-American community in South Florida, which is mostly white. Remittances from family members from abroad serve often as starting capital for the emerging private sector. The most lucrative branches of business such as restaurants and lodgings are run by white people in particular.
As of 2011, 96% of electricity was produced from fossil fuels. Solar panels were introduced in some rural areas to reduce blackouts, brownouts and use of kerosene. Citizens were encouraged to swap inefficient lamps with newer models to reduce consumption. A power tariff reduced inefficient use 
In 2007, Cuba produced an estimated 16.89 billion kWh of electricity and consumed 13.93 billion kWh with no exports or imports. In a 1998 estimate, 89.52% of its energy production is fossil fuel, 0.65% is hydroelectric and 9.83% is other production. In both 2007 and 2008 estimates, the country produced 62,100 bbl/d of oil and consumes 176,000 bbl/d with 104,800 bbl/d of imports, as well as 197,300,000 bbl proved reserves of oil. Venezuela is Cuba's primary source of oil.
In 2008, Cuba produced and consumed an estimated 400 million cu m of natural gas, with no cu m of exports or imports and 70.79 billion cu m of proved reserves.
The Energy Revolution is a program executed by Cuba in 2006. This program focused on developing the country's socio-economic status and transition Cuba into an energy-efficient economy with diverse energy resources. Cuba's energy sector lacks the resources to produce optimal amounts of power. In fact, one of the issues the Energy Revolution program faces comes from Cuba's power production suffering from the absence of investment and the ongoing trade sanctions imposed by the United States. Likewise, the energy sector has received a multimillion-dollar investment distributed among a network of power resources. However, customers are experiencing rolling blackouts of power from energy companies in order to preserve electricity during Cuba's economic crisis. Furthermore, an outdated electricity grid that's been damaged by hard hitting hurricanes, caused the energy crisis in 2004 and continued to be a major issue during the Energy Revolution. Cuba responded to this situation by providing a variety of different types of energy resources. In fact, 6000 small diesel generators, 416 Fuel Oil Generators, 893 diesel generators, 9.4 million incandescent bulbs for energy saving lamps, 1.33 million fans, 5.5 million electric pressure cookers, 3.4 million electric rice cookers, 0.2 million electric water pumps, 2.04 million domestic refrigerators and 0.1 million televisions were distributed among territories. The electrical grid was restored to only 90% until 2009. Alternative energy has emerged as a major priority as the government has promoted wind and solar power. The crucial challenge the Energy Revolution program will face is developing sustainable energy in Cuba but, take into account a country that's continuing to develop, an economic sanction and the detrimental effects of hurricanes that hit this country.
Cuba produces sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans and livestock. As of 2015, Cuba imported about 70–80% of its food. and 80–84% of the food it rations to the public. Raúl Castro ridiculed the bureaucracy that shackled the agriculture sector.
In total, industrial production accounted for almost 37% of Cuban GDP, or US$6.9 billion and employed 24% of the population, or 2,671,000 people, in 1996. A rally in sugar prices in 2009 stimulated investment and development of sugar processing.
In 2003 Cuba's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry was gaining in importance. Among the products sold internationally are vaccines against various viral and bacterial pathogens. For example, the drug Heberprot-P was developed as a cure for diabetic foot ulcer and had success in many developing countries. Cuba has also done pioneering work on the development of drugs for cancer treatment.
In the mid-1990s tourism surpassed sugar, long the mainstay of the Cuban economy, as the primary source of foreign exchange. Havana devotes significant resources to building tourist facilities and renovating historic structures. Cuban officials estimate roughly 1.6 million tourists visited Cuba in 1999 yielding about $1.9 billion in gross revenues. In 2000, 1,773,986 foreign visitors arrived in Cuba. Revenue from tourism reached US$1.7 billion. By 2012, some 3 million visitors brought nearly £2 billion yearly.
The growth of tourism has had social and economic repercussions. This led to speculation of the emergence of a two-tier economy and the fostering of a state of tourist apartheid. This situation was exacerbated by the influx of dollars during the 1990s, potentially creating a dual economy based on the dollar (the currency of tourists) on the one hand and the peso on the other. Scarce imported goods – and even some of local manufacture, such as rum and coffee – could be had at dollar-only stores, but were hard to find or unavailable at peso prices. As a result, Cubans who earned only in the peso economy, outside the tourist sector, were at a disadvantage. Those with dollar incomes based upon the service industry began to live more comfortably. This widened the gulf between Cubans' material standards of living, in conflict with the Cuban Government's long term socialist policies.
Cuba has a small retail sector. A few large shopping centers operated in Havana as of September 2012 but charged US prices. Pre-Revolutionary commercial districts were largely shut down. The majority of stores are small dollar stores, bodegas, agro-mercados (farmers' markets) and street stands.
The financial sector remains heavily regulated and access to credit for entrepreneurial activity is seriously impeded by the shallowness of the financial market.
Foreign investment and trade
The Netherlands receives the largest share of Cuban exports (24%), 70 to 80% of which go through Indiana Finance BV, a company owned by the Van 't Wout family, who have close personal ties with Fidel Castro. Currently, this trend can be seen in other colonial Caribbean communities who have direct political ties with the global economy. Cuba's primary import partner is Venezuela. The second largest trade partner is Canada, with a 22% share of the Cuban export market.
Cuba began courting foreign investment in the Special Period. Foreign investors must form joint ventures with the Cuban government. The sole exception to this rule are Venezuelans, who are allowed to hold 100% ownership in businesses due to an agreement between Cuba and Venezuela. Cuban officials said in early 1998 that 332 joint ventures had begun. Many of these are loans or contracts for management, supplies, or services normally not considered equity investment in Western economies. Investors are constrained by the U.S.-Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act that provides sanctions for those who traffic in property expropriated from U.S. citizens.
Cuba's average tariff rate is 10 percent. The country's planned economy deters foreign trade and investment. The state maintains strict capital and exchange controls. In September 2019, EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini stated during a three-day visit to Cuba that the European Union is committed to helping Cuba develop its economy 
Cuba has two official currencies, both of which are called peso. One is sometimes called the "national currency" (or CUP) the other is the convertible peso (or CUC, often called "dollar" in the spoken language). There are currently 25 CUP per CUC.
In 1994 the possession and use of US dollars was legalised, and by 2004 the US dollar was in widespread use in the country. To capture the hard currency flowing into the island through tourism and remittances – estimated at $500–800 million annually – the government set up state-run "dollar stores" throughout Cuba that sold "luxury" food, household and clothing items, compared with basic necessities, which could be bought using national pesos. As such, the standard of living diverged between those who had access to dollars and those without. Jobs that could earn dollar salaries or tips from foreign businesses and tourists became highly desirable. It was common to meet doctors, engineers, scientists and other professionals working in restaurants or as taxicab drivers.
However, in response to stricter economic sanctions by the US and because the authorities were pleased with Cuba's economic recovery, the Cuban government decided in October 2004 to remove US dollars from circulation. In its place, the convertible peso was created, which although not internationally traded, has a value pegged to the US dollar 1:1. A 10% surcharge is levied for cash conversions from US dollars to the convertible peso, which does not apply to other currencies, so it acts as an encouragement for tourists to bring currencies such as Euros, pounds sterling or Canadian dollars into Cuba. An increasing number of tourist zones accept Euros.
Owners of small private restaurants (paladares) originally could seat no more than 12 people and can only employ family members. Set monthly fees must be paid regardless of income earned and frequent inspections yield stiff fines when any of the many self-employment regulations are violated.
As of 2012, more than 150,000 farmers had signed up to lease land from the government for bonus crops. Before, home-owners were only allowed to swap; once buying and selling were allowed, prices rose.
In cities, "urban agriculture" farms small parcels. Growing organopónicos (organic gardens) in the private sector has been attractive to city-dwelling small producers who sell their products where they produce them, avoiding taxes and enjoying a measure of government help from the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI) in the form of seed houses and advisers.
Typical wages range from 400 non-convertible Cuban pesos a month, for a factory worker, to 700 per month for a doctor, or a range of around 17–30 US dollars per month. However, the Human Development Index of Cuba still ranks much higher than the vast majority of Latin American nations. After Cuba lost Soviet subsidies in 1991, malnutrition resulted in an outbreak of diseases. Despite this, the poverty level reported by the government is one of the lowest in the developing world, ranking 6th out of 108 countries, 4th in Latin America and 48th among all countries. Pensions are among the smallest in the Americas at $9.50/month. In 2009, Raúl Castro increased minimum pensions by 2 dollars, which he said was to recompense for those who have "dedicated a great part of their lives to working... and who remain firm in defense of socialism". Cuba is known for its system of food distribution, the Libreta de Abastecimiento ("Supplies booklet"). The system establishes the rations each person is allowed to buy through that system, and the frequency of supplies. Despite rumors of ending, the system still exists.
- La Bodega – For Cuban nationals only. Redeems coupons for rice, sugar, oil, matches and sells other foodstuffs including rum.
- La Coppelia – A government-owned facility offering ice cream, juice and sweets.
- Paladar – A type of small, privately owned restaurant facility.
- La Farmacia – Low-priced medicine, with the lowest costs anywhere in the world.
- ETECSA – National telephone service provider.
- La Feria – A weekly market (Sunday market-type) owned by the government.
- Cervecería Bucanero – A beverage manufacturer, providing both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.
- Ciego Montero – The main soft-drink and beverage distributor.
Connection with Venezuela
The relationship cultivated between Cuba and Venezuela in recent years resulted in agreements in which Venezuela provides cheap oil in exchange for Cuban "missions" of doctors to bolster the Venezuelan health care system. As of 2015, Cuba had the third-highest number of physicians per capita worldwide (behind Monaco and Qatar)The country sends tens of thousands of doctors to other countries as aid, as well as to obtain favorable trade terms. In nominal terms, the Venezuelan subsidy is higher than whatever subsidy the Soviet Union gave to Cuba, with the Cuban state receiving cheap oil and the Cuban economy receiving around $6 billion annually. According to Mesa-Lago, a Cuban-born US economist. "If this help stops, industry is paralysed, transportation is paralysed and you'll see the effects in everything from electricity to sugar mills," he said.
From an economic standpoint, Cuba relies much more on Venezuela than Venezuela does on Cuba. As of 2012, Venezuela accounted for 20.8% of Cuba's GDP while Cuba only accounted for roughly 4% of Venezuela's. Because of this reliance, the most recent economic Crisis in Venezuela (2012-present), with inflation nearing 800% and GDP shrinking by 19% in 2016, Cuba is not receiving their amount of payment and heavily subsidized oil. Further budget cuts are in the plans for 2018 marking a third straight year.
In 2014 Cuba's economic freedom score was 28.7, making its economy one of the world's least free. Its overall score was 0.2 point higher than last year, with deteriorations in trade freedom, fiscal freedom, monetary freedom and freedom from corruption counterbalanced by an improvement in business freedom. Cuba ranked least free of 29 countries in the South and Central America/Caribbean region and its overall score was significantly lower than the regional average. Over the 20-year history of the Index, Cuba's economic freedom remained stagnant near the bottom of the “repressed” category. Its overall score improvement was less than 1 point over the past two decades, with score gains in fiscal freedom and freedom from corruption offset by double-digit declines in business freedom and investment freedom.
Despite some progress in restructuring the state sector since 2010, the private sector remained constrained by heavy regulations and tight state controls. The Heritage Foundation states that open-market policies were not in place to spur growth in trade and investment and the lack of competition continued to stifle dynamic economic expansion. A watered-down reform package endorsed by the Party trimmed the number of state workers and expanded the list of approved professions, but many details of the reform remained obscure.
Taxes and revenues
As of 2009, Cuba had $47.08 billion in revenues and $50.34 billion in expenditures with 34.6% of GDP in public debt, an account balance of $513 million and $4.647 billion in reserves of foreign exchange and gold. Government spending is around 67 percent of GDP and public debt is around 35 percent of the domestic economy. Despite reforms, the government continues to play a large role in the economy.
The top individual income tax rate is 50 percent. The top corporate tax rate is 30 percent (35 percent for wholly foreign-owned companies). Other taxes include a tax on property transfers and a sales tax. The overall tax burden is 24.4 percent of GDP.
- Purchasing power per capita is in 2016 US dollars
- state sector 72.3%, non-state sector 27.7% in 2017
- data are official rates; unofficial estimates are about double
- "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". datahelpdesk.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "Population, total - Cuba". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "GDP (current US$) - Cuba". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "The World Factbook". CIA.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "GDP per capita (current US$) - Cuba". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Labor force, total - Cuba". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Cuba". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Social Policy at the Crossroads Archived 2006-05-24 at the Wayback Machine Oxfam America Report
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) UNDP 2009
- "Cuba Economic Freedom Score" (PDF). Heritage. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- Upside Down World. "Talking with Cubans about the State of the Nation (3/5/04)". Upsidedownworld.org. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Mesa-Logo, Carmelo. How to break with Cuba's economic dependence. New York Times. March 10, 2019.
- GDP (current US$) - Cuba. World Bank national accounts data. Accessed October 11, 2019.
- The Economic Impact of U.S. Sanctions With Respect to Cuba. United States International Trade Commission, Publication 3398. Washington D.C., February 2001. Citing ECLAC, La Economia Cubana, p. 217; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, various editions; and EIU, Cuba, Annual Supplement, 1980, p.22.
- [Brundenius, Claes (2009) Revolutionary Cuba at 50: Growth with Equity revisited. Latin American Perspectives Vol. 36 No. 2, March 2009, pp. 31-48.]
- Mesa-Lago, Carmelo. How to break with Cuba's economic dependence. New York Times. March 10, 2019.
- Ritter, Archibald R.M. (9 May 2004). The Cuban Economy. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8229-7079-8. "Cuban workers are able to survive despite their low wages because they receive free health care and education from the government, and they pay no more than 10 percent of their income for housing."
- Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 9781107507180.
- [Mehrotra, Santosh. (1997) Human Development in Cuba: Growing Risk of Reversal in Development with a Human Face: Experience in Social Achievement and Economic Growth Ed. Santosh Mehrotra and Richard Jolly, Clarendon Press, Oxford]
- "American Experience – Fidel Castro". PBS. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Marianne Ward (Loyola College) and John Devereux (Queens College CUNY), The Road not taken: Pre-Revolutionary Cuban Living Standards in Comparative Perspective Archived 2012-12-17 at the Wayback Machine pp. 30–31.
- Natasha Geiling. "Before the Revolution". Smithsonian. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Freeman, Belmont (2014-12-01). "History of the Present: Havana". Places Journal (2014). doi:10.22269/141201.
- "Cuba Before the Revolution". Jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "John F. Kennedy: Speech of Senator John F. Kennedy, Cincinnati, Ohio, Democratic Dinner". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Monzote, Reinaldo Funes (2016-03-03). "Sugar Cane and Agricultural Transformations in Cuba". doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199366439.001.0001/acrefore-9780199366439-e-4. Cite journal requires
- Johnson, Leland L. (1965-01-01). "U.S. Business Interests in Cuba and the Rise of Castro". World Politics. 17 (3): 440–459. doi:10.2307/2009288. JSTOR 2009288.
- Gjelten, Tom (2008). Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba: The Biography of a Cause. Viking. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-0-670-01978-6. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- Brenner, Philip (2008). A Contemporary Cuba Reader: Reinventing the Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-7425-5507-5. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "Cuba After Castro: Can Exiles Reclaim Their Stake?". TIME.com. 5 August 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- New York Times (November 1995). "Well-to-Do in Cuba to Pay an Income Tax". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 January 2007.
- FRANKLIN, JANE, ed. (2016-01-01). Cuba and the U.S. Empire. A Chronological History. NYU Press. pp. 24–33. ISBN 9781583676066. JSTOR j.ctt1b3h9jn.8.
- Hannah, A. C.; Spence, Donald (1997-07-17). The International Sugar Trade. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471190547.
- "How Castro Failed - Commentary Magazine". Commentary Magazine. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
- "CUBA TODAY". Multinationalmonitor.org. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "Investor's Business Daily". Investor's Business Daily. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- John Pike. "Cuba's Economy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "Health Consequences of Cuba's Special Period". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 29 July 2008.
- "Parrot diplomacy". The Economist. 24 July 2008.
- "Cuba's Organic Revolution". TreeHugger. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "Wayback Machine". 13 June 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2018.[dead link]
- Inc, IBP (2015-01-26). Cuba Investment, Trade Laws and Regulations Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Laws. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781433075698.
- Pérez-López, Jorge F (2006). "The Cuban Economy in 2005–2006: The End of the Special Period?". Cuba in Transition. 16: 1–13.
- granma.cu - Cuban Economy Grows 7.5 Per Cent Archived 1 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Challenges 2007–2008: Cuban Economy in Need of Nourishment". Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Mesa-Lago, Carmelo. Economic and Social Balance of 50 Years of Cuban Revolution (PDF). p. 371, 380.[permanent dead link] in CIT
- "US to abstain from UN vote condemning Cuba embargo for the first time in 25 years". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
- Voss, Michael (16 April 2011). "A last hurrah for Cuba's communist rulers". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Cuba adopta nuevos lineamientos económicos para aumentar la producción". Semanarioaqui.com. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- New Cuban Economy Archived 2013-07-30 at the Wayback Machine
- "BBC Simon Reeve 2012 documentary". YouTube. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Weissert, Will (30 March 2008). "Cell phones, microwaves: New access to gizmos could deflect calls for deeper change in Cuba". Waxahachie Daily Light. Associated Press. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Stephen Wilkinson (10 September 2010). "Cuba: from communist to co-operative?". The Guardian. London.
- Domínguez, Jorge I. (2012). Cuban Economic and Social Development: Policy Reforms and Challenges in the 21st Century. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06243-6.
- Perez Villanueva, Omar Evernly; Pavel Vidal Alejandro (2010). "Cuban Perspectives on Cuban Socialism". The Journal of the Research on Socialism and Democracy". 24 (1).
- Philip, Peters (23 May 2012). "A Viewers Guide to Cuba's Economic Reforms". Lexington Institute: 21.
- "BBC 2012 Simon Reeve documentary". Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Chris Arsenault. "Cuba to open tax free Special Economic Zone". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "Cuba to scrap two-currency system in latest reform". BBC News. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Hansing, Katrin; Hoffmann Bert (2019). "Cuba's New Social Structure: Assessing the Re-Stratification of Cuban Society 60 Years after Revolution" (PDF). GIGA Working Paper Series. 315.
- "Cuba hoy: la pugna entre el racismo y la inclusión". NYT. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "La Revolucion Energetica: Cuba's Energy Revolution", Renewable Energy World International Magazine, 9 April 2009.
- "2nd Cuban offshore oil well also a bust". The Guardian. Havana. AP Foreign. 6 August 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Arrastía-Avila, Mario Alberto; Glidden, Lisa (2017). "CUBA'S ENERGY REVOLUTION AND 2030 POLICY GOALS: MORE PENETRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION". The International Journal of Cuban Studies. 9 (1): 73–90. doi:10.13169/intejcubastud.9.1.0073.
- Newman, Nicholas (2009). "Decentralized energy aids Cuba's power struggles". Power Engineering International. 17 (11): 16–19.
- Surez, Jos; Beatn, Pedro; Escalona, Ronoldy; Montero, Ofelia (2012). "Energy, environment and development in Cuba". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16 (5): 2724–2731. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.023.
- Cherni, Judith; Hill, Yohan (2009). "Energy and policy providing for sustainable rural livelihoods in remote locations – The case of Cuba". Geoforum. 40 (4): 645–654. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.04.001.
- "WFP Cuba page". Wfp.org.
- "Cuban leader looks to boost food production". Cnn.com. 17 April 2008.
- "Truly revolutionary". The Economist. 29 November 2003.
- "Ecuadorians benefit from Cuban drug Heberprot-p". Radio Havana Cuba. 12 August 2012. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- ""Cuba's Cancer Revolution" from The Documentary Podcast by BBC on Apple Podcasts". Apple Podcasts. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Inc, IBP (2016-04-18). Cuba Business and Investment Opportunities Yearbook Volume 1 Strategic, Practical Information and Opportunities. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781438776552.
- Gorry, C (2007). "Dr vicente vérez bencomo, director, center for the study of synthetic antigens, university of havana". MEDICC Rev. 9: 14–15. PMID 21487355.
- "Tourism, travel, and recreation – Cuba". Mationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- on YouTube
- Tourism in Cuba during the Special Period Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine
- "Lessons From Cuba". 4 November 2007. Archived from the original on 28 June 2003. Retrieved 21 January 2017. Travel Outward
- "Cuba". Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- FAQs on Canada-Cuba trade CBC
- "Cuba (11/03)". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
- "2014 Index of Economic Freedom". Heritage.org. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "EU stresses support for Cuba even as U.S. hikes sanctions". Reuters. 2019-09-10. Retrieved 2019-09-10.
- P. J. O'Rourke (1 December 2007). Eat the Rich: A Treatise on Economics. Grove/Atlantic, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-55584-710-4.
- "Cuba – The comandante's last move". The Economist. 21 February 2008.
- Efrén Córdova. "The situation of Cuban workers during the "Special Period in peacetime"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-18.
- List of countries by Human Development Index#Complete list of countries
- "Raul Castro raises state pension". BBC. 27 April 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- Organization, World Health. (2015). World Health Statistics 2015. World Health Organization. ISBN 9789240694439. OCLC 911246910.
- Tamayo, Juan O. "How will the Venezuela-Cuba link fare after Chávez's death?". miamiherald. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Jeremy Morgan. "Venezuela's Chávez Fills $9.4 Billion Yearly Post-Soviet Gap in Cuba's Accounts". Latin American Herald Tribune. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "As Hugo Chavez fights for his life, Cuba fears for its future". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Piccone,Ted and Harold Trinkunas "The Cuba-Venezuela Alliance: The Beginning of the End?" Latin America Initiative on Foreign Policy at Brookings (2014): 1-12..
- Frank, Marc. "Cuba warns of further belt tightening as Venezuelan crisis deepens." Reuters. N.p., 28 Apr. 2017. Web.
- Cuba in Transition: Volume 19.
- Cuba's Economic Struggles from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
- The Road not taken: Pre-Revolutionary Cuban Living Standards in Comparative Perspective, Marianne Ward (Loyola College) and John Devereux (Queens College CUNY)
- ARCHIBOLD, RANDAL. Inequality Becomes More Visible in Cuba as the Economy Shifts (February 2015), The New York Times
- Cave, Danien. Raúl Castro Thanks U.S., but Reaffirms Communist Rule in Cuba (December 2014), The New York Times. "Mr. Castro prioritized economics. He acknowledged that Cuban state workers needed better salaries and said Cuba would accelerate economic changes in the coming year, including an end to its dual-currency system. But he said the changes needed to be gradual to create a system of "prosperous and sustainable communism."
- Centro de Estudios de la Economía Cubana