Foreign relations of Artsakh

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The Republic of Artsakh is a republic with limited recognition in the South Caucasus region. Republic of Artsakh controls most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and some of the surrounding area.[1] It is recognized by only three other non-UN member states, Abkhazia,[2] South Ossetia[2] and Transnistria.[2][3] The rest of the international community recognizes Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan. In November 2012, a member of Uruguay's foreign relations committee stated that his country could recognize Nagorno-Karabakh's independence.[4] In 2012, Armenia and Tuvalu established diplomatic relations and it was perceived that Tuvalu may recognize Nagorno Karabakh's independence.[5] Also in 2012, the Parliament of New South Wales, an Australian state, called upon the Australian government to recognise Nagorno-Karabakh.[6] In September 2014, the Basque Parliament in Spain adopted a motion supporting Artsakh's right to self-determination and in November 2014, the Parliament of Navarre, also in Spain, issued a statement supporting Artsakh's inclusion in taking part in settlement negotiations.[7]

At the present, no diplomatic missions of other countries exist in Artsakh. On the other hand, the Republic has built a small network of representative offices around the world. Currently it has representative offices in 7 countries.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs[edit]

The Artsakh Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Stepanakert

Foreign policy of the state is governed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Artsakh. The Ministry is based in the capital city of Stepanakert. Currently, the Minister is Masis Mayilyan.

Bilateral relations[edit]

Abkhazia[edit]

The Republic of Artsakh and the partially recognized Republic of Abkhazia recognized each other. Both states abolished visa requirements for its citizens and participate in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.

Australia[edit]

In 2012, the Parliament of New South Wales, an Australian state, called upon the Australian government to recognize Artsakh. Artsakh maintains a Representative Office in Sydney, Australia.

Armenia[edit]

Artsakh has very close relations with Armenia. It functions as a de facto part of Armenia.[8][9][10][11][12][13] A representative office of Nagorno-Karabakh was established in Yerevan.

Europe[edit]

The Republic of Artsakh maintains three representative offices in Europe, including Berlin, Paris, and Moscow.

Lebanon[edit]

The Republic of Artsakh maintains a Representative office in Lebanon's capital, Beirut. In March 2018, Artsakh president Bako Sahakyan visited Lebanon and met with Catholicos Aram I, the head of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Church.[14] In May 2018, representatives of the Artsakh city of Martakert and the Lebanese town of Bourj Hammoud signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the latter town.[15]

South Ossetia[edit]

The Republic of Artsakh and partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia recognized each other. Both states abolished visa requirements for its citizens and participate in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.

Transnistria[edit]

Republic of Artsakh and Transnistria recognized each other and abolished visa requirements for their citizens. There are many joint activities between the two countries. In 2001, both countries in Stepanakert signed the Protocol on Cooperation and Consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Transnistria and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Artsakh.[16] Transnistria also participates in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.

United States[edit]

United States has not established diplomatic relations with the Republic of Artsakh and recognizes it as part of Azerbaijan. Support for Artsakh in the United States is manifested above all at the state legislature level. Several of them have adopted Artsakh support resolutions. In May 2012, the Rhode Island House of Representatives in the United States passed a resolution calling on President Barack Obama and the U.S. Congress to recognize Republic of Artsakh. On August 2012, the Massachusetts House of Representatives passed a similar resolution.[17] In April 2013, the Maine House of Representatives and Senate in the United States passed a resolution accepting Artsakh's independence and urging President Barack Obama to also accept Artsakh's independence.[18] In May 2013, the Louisiana State Senate in the United States passed a resolution accepting Artsakh's independence and expressed support for the Republic of Artsakh's efforts to develop as a free and independent nation.[19] In May 2014, the California State Assembly passed a measure recognizing Artsakh's independence with a 70–1 vote.[20] The measure also calls for President Barack Obama and the U.S. Congress to recognize Republic of Artsakh.[21] The US state of Hawaii unanimously voted to approve and recognize the Republic of Artsakh on March 30, 2016.[22] The Republic of Artsakh has also established a representative office in Washington, D.C.

In addition, Artsakh government officials regularly maintain contact with members of the United States Congress. In October 2019, the Foreign Minister of Artsakh noted that the authorities of the Republic attach great importance to the relations between Artsakh and the United States at various levels. The Minister also stated his appreciation of the United States for financial aid, support for the peaceful resolution of the conflict and hoped for further developing cooperation during a meeting with US Congress members.[23]

Independence recognition efforts[edit]

Non-UN member states[edit]

Entity Date of recognition Notes
 Abkhazia November 17, 2006 Mutual recognition
 South Ossetia November 17, 2006 Mutual recognition
 Transnistria [when?] Mutual recognition

U.S. states[edit]

U.S. states' recognition of Artsakh
Passed a bill recognizing
Artsakh
Rejected a bill recognizing
Azerbaijani territorial integrity
Rejected a bill recognizing
Artsakh
Passed a bill recognizing
Azerbaijani territorial integrity
 California (May 2014)[24][25]
 Georgia (March 2016)[26]
 Hawaii (March 2016)[27]
 Louisiana (May 2013)[28]
 Maine (April 2013)[29]
 Massachusetts (August 2012)[30]
 Michigan (September 2017)[31]
 Rhode Island (May 2012)[32]
 Colorado (April 2019)[33]
Minnesota Minnesota (May 2020)[34]

 Kentucky (March 2016)[35]
 Mississippi (April 2014)[36]
 South Dakota (February 2014)[37]
 Tennessee (March 2014)[37]
 Wyoming (February 2014)[37]
 Vermont (April 2014)[38]  Arizona (January 2014)[39]
 New Mexico (February 2014)[40]

Other[edit]

In October 2012, the Australian state of New South Wales recognized Nagorno-Karabakh[41] however it was reaffirmed by the Australian Foreign Minister in November 2015 that the federal government of the Commonwealth of Australia does not, and supports Azerbaijan's claim to the state.[42] In 2017, The Australian Greens announced that they recognize The Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh).[43][44]

In September 2014, the Basque parliament adopted a motion supporting Nagorno-Karabakh's right to self-determination.[45] In the Philippines, various politicians are in favor of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) recognition and have suggested for the cooperation of ASEAN (which includes 10 Southeast Asian nations) in the recognition of the country, however, the current administration has yet to prioritize the issue due to an ongoing drug war and a shift to federalism.[46]

Before California recognized Nagorno-Karabakh in May 2014, three places within the state had already recognized it:

Highland is twinned with Berdzor. Montebello is twinned with Stepanakert.[51]

In November 2019, the French Communist Party urged the French Government to recognize the independence of Artsakh.[52]

Inter-parliamentary relations[edit]

  • On 26 February 2013, a parliamentary friendship group was established between the Republic of Artsakh and the Parliament of Lithuania.[53]
  • On 19 March 2013, a parliamentary friendship group was established with parliament members and senators of France.
  • In October 2014, a parliamentary friendship group was established between Artsakh and the European Parliament.[54]
  • In October 2017, parliamentary friendship groups were established with both the Parliament of Wallonia and Flemish Parliament in Belgium.

International organisation participation[edit]

International conventions[edit]

In addition to the above, Artsakh is also a signatory to several international conventions and treaties, including:[58]

Participation in international sports federations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Official website of the President of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. General Information about NKR". President.nkr.am. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он."
  3. ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
  4. ^ "Uruguay may be the first to recognize Karabakh- Uruguay Deputy". Arka News Agency. 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2013-01-02. Uruguay may be the first country to recognize Nagorno-Karabakh Republic’s independence...
  5. ^ "Tuvalu and Armenia". Panorama. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
  6. ^ "Full Day Hansard Transcript". Parliament of New South Wales. 2012-10-25. Archived from the original on 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2012-11-14. ...calls on the Commonwealth Government to officially recognise the independence of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh and strengthen Australia's relationship with the Nagorno-Karabakh and its citizens.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Hughes, James (2002). Ethnicity and Territory in the Former Soviet Union: Regions in Conflict. London: Cass. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-7146-8210-5. Indeed, Nagorno-Karabakh is de facto part of Armenia.
  9. ^ Mulcaire, Jack (9 April 2015). "Face Off: The Coming War between Armenia and Azerbaijan". The National Interest. The mostly Armenian population of the disputed region now lives under the control of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a micronation that is supported by Armenia and is effectively part of that country.
  10. ^ "Armenia expects Russian support in Karabakh war". Hürriyet Daily News. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013. While internationally recognized as Azerbaijani territory, the enclave has declared itself an independent republic but is administered as a de facto part of Armenia.
  11. ^ Central Asia and The Caucasus, Information and Analytical Center, 2009, Issues 55-60, Page 74, "Nagorno-Karabakh became de facto part of Armenia (its quasi-statehood can dupe no one) as a result of aggression."
  12. ^ Deutsche Gesellschaft für auswärtige Politik, Internationale Politik, Volume 8, 2007 "... and Nagorno-Karabakh, the disputed territory that is now de facto part of Armenia ..."
  13. ^ Cornell, Svante (2011). Azerbaijan Since Independence. New York: M.E. Sharpe. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7656-3004-9. Following the war, the territories that fell under Armenian control, in particular Mountainous Karabakh itself, were slowly integrated into Armenia. Officially, Karabakh and Armenia remain separate political entities, but for most practical matters the two entities are unified.
  14. ^ Karabakh President in Lebanon, meets with Catholicos of Great House of Cilicia, news.am 21. March 2018.
  15. ^ Karabakh’s Martakert, Lebanon’s Bourj Hammoud sign memorandum of cooperation, news.am 18. May 2018.
  16. ^ "Protocol on Cooperation and Consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Pridnestrovien Moldavian Republic and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Transnistria. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  17. ^ Massachusetts State Legislature Calls For Recognition Of Nagorno-Karabakh, RFE/RL, 2012
  18. ^ http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/bills/getPDF.asp?paper=HP0987&item=1&snum=126
  19. ^ http://senate.la.gov/sessioninfo/2013/RS/Journals/05-30-2013.pdf
  20. ^ White, Jeremy B. (8 May 2014). "Capitol Alert: California Assembly calls for Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Fresno Bee. Archived from the original on 2014-05-08.
  21. ^ Mason, Melanie (5 May 2014). "Calif. lawmakers to weigh in on dispute between Armenia, Azerbaijan". LA Times.
  22. ^ Hawaii State Legislature Calls For Recognition Of Nagorno-Karabakh, RFE/RL, 2016
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ White, Jeremy B. (8 May 2014). "Capitol Alert: California Assembly calls for Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Fresno Bee. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014.
  25. ^ Mason, Melanie (5 May 2014). "Calif. lawmakers to weigh in on dispute between Armenia, Azerbaijan". LA Times.
  26. ^ "Georgia House Recognizes Independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Asbarez. March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  27. ^ "State of Hawaii Recognizes Independence of Nagorno Karabakh Republic". Massis Post. 29 March 2016.
  28. ^ "OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE SENATE OF THE STATE OF LOUISIANA" (PDF). senate.la.gov.
  29. ^ "JOINT RESOLUTION MEMORIALIZING THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS TO SUPPORT THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE NAGORNOKARABAKH REPUBLIC". www.mainelegislature.org.
  30. ^ Massachusetts State Legislature Calls For Recognition Of Nagorno-Karabakh, RFE/RL, 2012
  31. ^ Hairenik (2017-09-28). "Michigan Recognizes Artsakh Independence". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
  32. ^ Rhode Island Legislature Calls For Nagorno-Karabakh Recognition, RFE/RL, 2012
  33. ^ "Colorado Senate Recognizes Artsakh, Commemorates Armenian Genocide". Asbarez.com. 2019-04-24. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  34. ^ "State of Minnesota Recognizes the Republic of Artsakh | Toronto Hye". 2020-05-05. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  35. ^ "Kentucky State Senate Withdraws Pro-Azerbaijani Resolution". Asbarez. March 7, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  36. ^ "Mississippi Senate rejected pro-Azerbaijani resolution". Times.am. April 10, 2014. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  37. ^ a b c "Pro-Azerbaijani forces failed passing anti-Armenian resolution in Tennessee". Panorama.am. March 26, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  38. ^ Laura Krantz (April 10, 2014). "Vermont Senate bows out of international squabble". Brattleboro Reformer. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  39. ^ "Arizona Legislature supports Azerbaijan's territorial integrity". Consulate General of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Los Angeles. January 30, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  40. ^ Sabina Ahmadova (February 14, 2014). "Senate of U.S. State of New Mexico adopts resolution on Azerbaijan". Trend News Agency. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  41. ^ 11:48, 25.10.2012 (2012-10-25). "Australia's largest state recognizes independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". News.am. Retrieved 2017-11-16.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  42. ^ "EXP: Question time in federal parliament". 9News. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  43. ^ http://armenianweekly.com/2017/12/13/australian-greens-recognize-artsakh-party-platform/
  44. ^ http://armenpress.am/eng/news/915921/australian-greens-recognize-the-republic-of-artsakh.html
  45. ^ "Basque Parliament Supports Artsakh's Self-Determination". Asbarez. 12 September 2014.
  46. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-17. Retrieved 2018-04-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  47. ^ a b "Azerbaijan Protests California Town's Recognition of Nagorno-Karabakh". RIA Novosti. December 6, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  48. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2018-04-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ "The US City of Highland Recognizes Nagorno-Karabakh - Armenian News". Tert.am. Retrieved 2017-11-16.
  50. ^ "Los Angeles city council recognizes the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". ARKA News Agency. January 29, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  51. ^ Wright, Pam. "Montebello's newest Sister City program has come under fire from an ambassador for the Republic of Azerbaijan." Whittier Daily News. November 19, 2005.
  52. ^ [http://armenpress.am/eng/news/993871.html
  53. ^ [3]
  54. ^ [4]
  55. ^ "Karabakh president visits office of European Friends of Armenia". News.am.
  56. ^ [5]
  57. ^ [6]
  58. ^ [7]

External links[edit]