List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia

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The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 41 World Heritage Sites in eleven countries (also called "State parties") of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Singapore, and Laos. Only Brunei and East Timor lack World Heritage Sites.[1][2]

Indonesia lead the list with nine inscribed sites, followed by Vietnam with eight inscribed sites, with the Philippines having six, Thailand five, Malaysia four, Cambodia and Laos three each, Myanmar two, and Singapore one.[3] The first sites from the region were inscribed at the 15th session of the World Heritage Committee in 1991.[4] The latest sites inscribed are the Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto in Indonesia, Plain of Jars in Laos, and Bagan in Myanmar, inscribed in the 43rd session of the Committee in Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan, in July 2019.[5] Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites or delist those no longer meeting the criteria, the selection based on ten criteria of which six stand for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x);[6] some sites are "mixed" and represent both types of heritage. In Southeast Asia, there are 26 cultural, 13 natural and 1 mixed sites.[3]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." One site in this region, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, is listed as endangered; Angkor and Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras were once listed but were taken off in 2004 and 2012 respectively.

By comparison with other world regions such as East Asia, South Asia, Middle East, Central America, and Western Europe, the designation of UNESCO sites in the Southeast Asian region has been regarded as 'too few and too slow' since the inception of the 21st century. Scholars from various Southeast Asian nations have suggested for the establishment of an inclusive Southeast Asian body that will cater to the gaps of the region's activities in UNESCO as the majority of nations in the region are underperforming in the majority of the lists adopted by UNESCO, notably the World Heritage List. More than 20 sites have been in the tentative list for more than 20 years.

Currently, 4 Southeast Asian countries are serving as members of the UNESCO Executive Board. Vietnam and Malaysia's terms shall expire in 2019, while the Philippines and Indonesia's terms shall expire in 2021. The Philippines has expressed a possible UNESCO Director-General bid in 2021 or 2025. The country has cited its possible candidate to be Senator Loren Legarda, a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change National Adaptation Plan Champion, United Nations Global Champion for Resilience, Dangal ng Haraya Patron of Arts and Culture, Chevalier/Cavaliere to France and Italy, and an honorary royalty to the indigenous peoples of Mindanao, Panay, and the Cordilleras. She has also been cited by the United States as one of the most powerful woman in the Philippines, having support from Asian, Oceanic, and Latin American peers. The ASEAN bloc supports the possible candidature of the Philippines.[7][8]

Legend[edit]

The table is sortable by column by clicking on the Sort both.gif at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Transborder sites sort at the bottom.

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Site; named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[3]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[6]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable.

World Heritage Sites[edit]

  † In danger
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Angkor
Ruins of a large structure with five large towers at the top.
Siem Reap Province,  Cambodia
13°26′N 103°50′E / 13.433°N 103.833°E / 13.433; 103.833 (Angkor)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
40,000 (99,000) 1992 The site was listed as endangered from its inscription in times of political instability following the civil war in the 1980s to 2004. [9][10]
[11]
Bagan
Bagan
Mandalay Region,  Myanmar
21°10′00″N 94°52′00″E / 21.166667°N 94.866667°E / 21.166667; 94.866667 (Bagan)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv), (vi)
5,005.49 (12,368.8)
buffer zone 18,146.83 (44,841.8)
2019 [12]
Ban Chiang Archaeological Site
Vase with red and white design.
Udon Thani Province,  Thailand
17°32′55″N 103°47′23″E / 17.54861°N 103.78972°E / 17.54861; 103.78972 (Ban Chiang Archaeological Site)
Cultural:
(iii)
64 (160) 1992 [13]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines
FvfIntramuros2720 24.JPG
Sta. Maria Church, Ilocos Sur.jpg
St. Augustine Church - Paoay, Ilocos Norte.jpg
Miagao Church.jpg
Manila; Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur; Paoay, Ilocos Norte and Miag-ao, Iloilo;  Philippines
14°35′24″N 120°58′12″E / 14.59000°N 120.97000°E / 14.59000; 120.97000 (Baroque Churches of the Philippines)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1993 [14]
Borobudur Temple Compounds
A terraced pyramid like structure with a stupa on top.
Magelang Regency, Central Java  Indonesia
7°36′28″S 110°12′13″E / 7.60778°S 110.20361°E / -7.60778; 110.20361 (Borobudur Temple Compounds)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (vi)
1991 Buddhist monument dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, located in Central Java. The monument structure is a large stepped pyramid crowned with rows of stupas. [15]
Complex of Hué Monuments
Staircase leading to a building of dark stone. A simple decorated gate is at the top of the staircase.
Thừa Thiên–Huế Province,  Vietnam
16°28′10″N 107°34′40″E / 16.46944°N 107.57778°E / 16.46944; 107.57778 (Complex of Hué Monuments)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
1993 [16]
Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex
Medium sized waterfall in a tropical forest.
Saraburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Prachinburi, Sa Kaeo and Buriram Provinces  Thailand
14°20′N 102°3′E / 14.333°N 102.050°E / 14.333; 102.050 (Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex)
Natural:
(x)
615,500 (1,521,000) 2005 [17]
Gunung Mulu National Park
Sunset or sunrise over a mountain landscape with fog in the valleys.
northern Sarawak, Borneo,  Malaysia
4°8′N 114°55′E / 4.133°N 114.917°E / 4.133; 114.917 (Gunung Mulu National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
52,864 (130,630) 2000 [18]
Hạ Long Bay
Forested rocks in the sea.
Quảng Ninh Province,  Vietnam
20°54′N 107°6′E / 20.900°N 107.100°E / 20.900; 107.100 (Ha Long Bay)
Natural:
(vii), (viii)
150,000 (370,000) 1994[nb 1] [19]
Historic City of Ayutthaya
Ruins of stupas of various sizes.
Ayutthaya province,  Thailand
14°20′52″N 100°33′38″E / 14.34778°N 100.56056°E / 14.34778; 100.56056 (Historic City of Ayutthaya)
Cultural:
(iii)
289 (710) 1991 [20]
Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns
Wat Si Chum 02.jpg Lotusbudwchetthaeo0408.jpg Wat Phra Keaw in Kamphaeng Phet.jpg
Sukhothai and Kamphaeng Phet Provinces,  Thailand
17°0′26″N 99°47′23″E / 17.00722°N 99.78972°E / 17.00722; 99.78972 (Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns)
Cultural:
(i), (iii)
11,852 (29,290) 1991 [21]
Historic Town of Vigan
Street of three-storied ramshackle colonial style buildings.
Ilocos Sur,  Philippines
17°34′30″N 120°23′15″E / 17.57500°N 120.38750°E / 17.57500; 120.38750 (Historic Town of Vigan)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1999 [22]
Hội An Ancient Town
Street lined by rows of two-storied stone houses opening onto the street.
Hội An, Quảng Nam Province,  Vietnam
15°53′0″N 108°20′0″E / 15.88333°N 108.33333°E / 15.88333; 108.33333 (Hoi An Ancient Town)
Cultural:
(ii), (v)
30 (74); buffer zone 280 (690) 1999 [23]
Kinabalu Park
Mountain with a rocky top and forested slopes. There is a narro high waterfall on one side of the mountain slope.
Sabah, Borneo,  Malaysia
6°15′N 116°30′E / 6.250°N 116.500°E / 6.250; 116.500 (Kinabalu Park)
Natural:
(ix), (x)
75,370 (186,200) 2000 [24]
Komodo National Park
Komodo dragon at Komodo National Park, Indonesia.
East Nusa Tenggara  Indonesia
8°33′S 119°29′E / 8.550°S 119.483°E / -8.550; 119.483 (Komodo National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (x)
219,322 (541,960) 1991 [25]
Lorentz National Park
A rocky mountain ridge.
Papua  Indonesia
4°45′S 137°50′E / 4.750°S 137.833°E / -4.750; 137.833 (Lorentz National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
2,350,000 (5,800,000) 1999 [26]
Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca
Town scene with three-storied red houses and a red church. There is a three-storied clock tower standing on a square.
The view of Little India
Malacca and Penang, Malay Peninsula,  Malaysia
5°25′17″N 100°20′45″E / 5.42139°N 100.34583°E / 5.42139; 100.34583 (Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
148 (370); buffer zone 284 (700) 2008 [27]
Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary
Mount Hamiguitan.
Davao Oriental,  Philippines
6°43′2″N 126°10′24″E / 6.71722°N 126.17333°E / 6.71722; 126.17333 (Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary)
Natural:
(x)
2014 [28]
Mỹ Sơn Sanctuary
Ruins of buildings of red stone with niches and sculptures. The roof of one of the structures is partially covered in grass.
Duy Phú, Duy Xuyên District, Quảng Nam Province,  Vietnam
15°31′0″N 108°34′0″E / 15.51667°N 108.56667°E / 15.51667; 108.56667 (My Son Sanctuary)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii)
142 (350); buffer zone 920 (2,300) 1999 [29]
Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park
Landscape with river and densely forested hills.
Bố Trạch and Minh Hóa districts, Quảng Bình Province,  Vietnam
17°32′14″N 106°9′5″E / 17.53722°N 106.15139°E / 17.53722; 106.15139 (Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park)
Natural:
(viii)
123,326 (304,750) 2003 [30]
Plain of Jars
20171115 Plain of Jars Laos Site 3 2784 DxO.jpg
Xiangkhouang Province,  Laos
19°25′48″N 103°9′10.8″E / 19.43000°N 103.153000°E / 19.43000; 103.153000 (Plain of Jars)
Cultural: (iii) 174.56 (431.34) 2019 Located on a plateau in central Laos, gets its name from more than 2,100 tubular-shaped megalithic stone jars used for funerary practices in the Iron Age. [31]
Prambanan Temple Compounds
The main shrine of Prambanan temple compound dedicated to Shiva, surrounded by numbers of smaller shrines.
Central Java and Special Region of Yogyakarta,  Indonesia
7°45′8″S 110°29′30″E / 7.75222°S 110.49167°E / -7.75222; 110.49167 (Prambanan Temple Compounds)
Cultural:
(i), (iv)
1991 [32]
Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park
A river flowing into a cave.
Palawan,  Philippines
10°10′0″N 118°55′0″E / 10.16667°N 118.91667°E / 10.16667; 118.91667 (Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (x)
5,753 (14,220) 1999 [33]
Pyu Ancient Cities
Bawbawgyi Pagoda at Sri Ksetra, prototype of Pagan-era pagodas.
Mandalay, Magway, Bago,  Myanmar
22°28′12″N 95°49′7″E / 22.47000°N 95.81861°E / 22.47000; 95.81861 (Pyu Ancient Cities)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2014 [34]
Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras
Batad Rice Terraces.
Ifugao, Cordillera Region,  Philippines
16°56′2″N 121°8′12″E / 16.93389°N 121.13667°E / 16.93389; 121.13667 (Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv), (v)
1995 [35][36]
Sangiran Early Man Site
Upper part of a petrified skull including some teeth.
Central Java  Indonesia
7°24′0″S 110°49′0″E / 7.40000°S 110.81667°E / -7.40000; 110.81667 (Sangiran Early Man Site)
Cultural:
(iii), (vi)
5,600 (14,000) 1996 [37]
Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto
Ombilin coal mine on 1971.
West Sumatra  Indonesia
0°40′0″S 100°47′0″E / 0.66667°S 100.78333°E / -0.66667; 100.78333 (Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto)
Cultural:
(ii),(iv)
2019 Sawahlunto is the oldest coal mining town in South East Asia. At the end of the 19th century, Dutch Indies had discovered and further exploited coal in Sawahlunto. [38]
Singapore Botanic Gardens
Music was played at this gazebo, known as the Bandstand, in the Singapore Botanic Gardens in the 1930s
Singapore  Singapore
1°18′55″N 103°48′58″E / 1.31528°N 103.81611°E / 1.31528; 103.81611 (Singapore Botanic Gardens)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
49 (120) 2015 [39]
Temple of Preah Vihear
Ruins of a stone building erected on a stone platform. The roof above the main entrance is decorated.
Preah Vihear Province,  Cambodia
14°23′18″N 104°41′2″E / 14.38833°N 104.68389°E / 14.38833; 104.68389 (Temple of Preah Vihear)
Cultural:
(i)
155 (380); buffer zone 2,643 (6,530) 2008 [40]
Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries
A river flowing through a forested mountain landscape.
Kanchanaburi, Tak and Uthai Thani Provinces  Thailand
15°20′N 98°55′E / 15.333°N 98.917°E / 15.333; 98.917 (Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
622,200 (1,537,000) 1991 [41]
Town of Luang Prabang
Stone building with golden decorated entrance, stacked and very steep roofs.
Luang Prabang Province,  Laos
19°53′20″N 102°8′0″E / 19.88889°N 102.13333°E / 19.88889; 102.13333 (Town of Luang Prabang)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (v)
1995 [42]
Tràng An Landscape Complex
Tam Cốc in Hoa Lư Ancient Capital
Ninh Binh Province,  Vietnam
20°15′24″N 105°53′47″E / 20.25667°N 105.89639°E / 20.25667; 105.89639 (Trang An - Ninh Binh)
Mixed:
(v), (vii), (viii)
2014 [43]
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra
Man of the woods.JPG
Sumatra,  Indonesia
2°30′S 101°30′E / 2.500°S 101.500°E / -2.500; 101.500 (Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
2,595,124 (6,412,690) 2004 [44][45]
Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park
Shark and corrals.
Cagayancillo, Palawan,  Philippines
8°57′12″N 119°52′3″E / 8.95333°N 119.86750°E / 8.95333; 119.86750 (Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
130,028 (321,310) 1993[nb 2] [46][47]
Ujung Kulon National Park
Rocky ground within a tropical forest.
Banten and Lampung,  Indonesia
6°45′S 105°20′E / 6.750°S 105.333°E / -6.750; 105.333 (Ujung Kulon National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (x)
78,525 (194,040) 1991 [48]
Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape
Ruins of stone buildings in a very green lush mountain landscape.
Champasak Province,  Laos
14°50′54″N 105°49′20″E / 14.84833°N 105.82222°E / 14.84833; 105.82222 (Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv), (vi)
39,000 (96,000) 2001 [49]
Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi
Stone tower on top of a stone wall. The wall has circular wheel-shaped windows and a red flag with yellow star is raised on top of the tower.
Hanoi,  Vietnam
21°2′22″N 105°50′14″E / 21.03944°N 105.83722°E / 21.03944; 105.83722 (Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (vi)
18 (44); buffer zone 108 (270) 2010 [50]
Citadel of the Hồ Dynasty
A gate built of massive grey stones.
Tây Giai, Vĩnh Lộc District, Thanh Hóa Province,  Vietnam
20°4′41″N 105°36′17″E / 20.07806°N 105.60472°E / 20.07806; 105.60472 (Citadel of the Ho Dynasty)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
156 (390); buffer zone 5,079 (12,550) 2011 [51]
Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley
Lenggong Valley.
Perak,  Malaysia
5°4′N 100°58′E / 5.067°N 100.967°E / 5.067; 100.967 (Lenggong Valley)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
399 (990) 2012 [52]
Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy
Jatiluwih Rice Terraces
Bali  Indonesia
8°20′0″S 115°0′0″E / 8.33333°S 115.00000°E / -8.33333; 115.00000 (Cultural Landscape of Bali Province)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (v), (vi)
19,520 (48,200) 2012 [53]
Temple Zone of Sambor Prei Kuk, Archaeological Site of Ancient Ishanapura
A temple in Sambor Prei Kuk.
Kompung Thom Province,  Cambodia
12°52′54″N 105°54′20″E / 12.88167°N 105.90556°E / 12.88167; 105.90556 (Temple Zone of Sambor Prei Kuk, Archaeological Site of Ancient Ishanapura)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (vi)
39,000 (96,000) 2017 [54]

Location of sites[edit]

Southeast Asia has the least number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, next to Central and North Asia, despite being the base of the UNESCO Asia-Pacific headquarters located in Bangkok, Thailand and having a diverse line of natural and cultural heritage sites. Due to this, numerous scholars have been calling on Southeast Asian governments to participate and nominate more sites in UNESCO annually.

Various institutions have also criticized UNESCO for its 'Europe-centric' designations. An example of which was when UNESCO declared 10 UNESCO sites in Italy (a European country) in just a single year (1997). During the same time, 8 sites were declared for the entire Asian continent, where no designated site was located in Southeast Asia at all.[55]

Green - Natural; Yellow - Cultural; Blue - Mixed; Red - In danger

Performance of Southeast Asia in UNESCO[edit]

The performance of Southeast Asia is contrasted by the performance of South and East Asia. Southeast Asian countries are in blue.

UNESCO Tentative List of Southeast Asia[edit]

Brunei, Singapore and Timor-Leste currently have no tentative list sites. Both Brunei and Timor-Leste are presently undergoing comprehensive research for tentative site submissions. Malaysia, Thailand and Viet Nam revised their tentative lists in 2017. Laos, Philippines and Myanmar revised their tentative lists in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Cambodia last revised its tentative list in 1992. Indonesia last revised their tentative lists in 2018. The following lists also include the current nomination process being focused on by each country.

UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Register of Southeast Asia[edit]

The Intangible Cultural Heritage of Southeast Asia is represented by Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Singapore, Brunei, and East Timor have either not yet submitted an intangible heritage to UNESCO or they have yet to ratify and participate in the Intangible Cultural Registrar of UNESCO. Southeast Asia has two endangered intangible cultural heritage, Ca trung singing of Vietnam and Noken multifunctional knotted or woven bag, handcraft of the people of Papua of Indonesia. The latest inscription for Southeast Asia is Tugging rituals and games in 2015, which is composed of submissions by Cambodia, the Philippines, South Korea, and Vietnam.[58]

Member state Element[A] Year Proclaimed[B] Year Inscribed[C] Description[D] Reference
 Cambodia The Royal Ballet of Cambodia 2003 2008 [59]
Sbek Thom, Khmer Shadow Theatre 2005 2008 [60]
Chapei Dang Veng 2016 [61]
Lkhon Khol Wat Svay Andet 2018 [62]
 Indonesia Wayang puppet theatre 2003 2008 [63]
Indonesian Kris 2005 2008 [64]
Indonesian Batik 2009 2009 [65]
Education and training in Indonesian Batik intangible cultural heritage for elementary, junior, senior, vocational school and polytechnic students, in collaboration with the Batik Museum in Pekalongan 2009 [66]
Indonesian Angklung 2010 2010 [67]
Saman dance 2011 [68]
Noken multifunctional knotted or woven bag, handcraft of the people of Papua 2012 [69]
Three genres of traditional dance in Bali 2015 [70]
Pinisi, the art of boatbuilding in South Sulawesi 2017 [71]
 Malaysia Mak Yong Theatre 2005 2008 [72]
 Philippines The Hudhud Chants of the Ifugao 2001 2008 [73]
The Darangen Epic of the Maranao People of Lake Lanao 2005 2008 [74]
 Thailand Khon, masked dance drama in Thailand 2018 [75]
 Vietnam Nhã nhạc, Vietnamese Court Music 2003 2008 [76]
Space of Gong Culture 2005 2008 [77]
Quan Họ Bắc Ninh folk songs 2009 2009 [78]
Ca Trù singing 2009 2009 [79]
Gióng festival of Phù Ðổng and Sóc Temples 2010 2010 [80]
Xoan singing of Phú Thọ Province 2011 2011 [81]
Worship of Hùng Kings in Phú Thọ 2012 2012 [82]
Art of Đờn ca tài tử music and song in southern Việt Nam 2013 2013 [83]
Ví and Giặm folk songs of Nghệ Tĩnh 2014 2014 [84]
 Cambodia  Philippines  South Korea  Vietnam Tugging rituals and games 2015 2015 [58]

Southeast Asia Memories of the World Register[edit]

UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.[1] It calls for the preservation of valuable archival holdings, library collections and private individual compendia all over the world for posterity, the reconstitution of dispersed or displaced documentary heritage, and the increased accessibility to and dissemination of these items.

Southeast Asia's entry to the Memories of the World Register was through the submission of the Philippine Paleographs (Hanunoo, Build, Tagbanua and Pala’wan) by the National Museum of the Philippines in 1999, where it was inscribed on the same year as well. Following this landmark for the region, Malaysia followed with an immediate three submissions in 2001, all of which were inscribed the same year. Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia followed in 2003. After these landmark submissions and inscriptions, Southeast Asia's contribution to the Memories of the World Register has expanded into 24, 1 from Cambodia, 5 from Indonesia (1 of which is a multinational inscription), 4 from Malaysia, 3 from Myanmar (1 of which is a multinational site), 4 from the Philippines, 4 from Thailand, 1 from Timor-Leste, and 2 from Vietnam. Singapore, Laos, and Brunei have yet to inscript a submission in the Register.

Member state Memory Submission Inscription Submitted By Detail Reference
 Cambodia Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum Archives 2008 2009 [85]
 Indonesia Asian-African Conference Archives 2014 2015 [86]
 Indonesia Babad Diponegoro or Autobiographical Chronicle of Prince Diponegoro (1785–1855). A Javanese nobleman, Indonesian national hero and pan-Islamist 2012 2013 [87]
 Indonesia Nāgarakrĕtāgama or Description of the Country (1365 AD) 2012 2013 [88]
 Indonesia La Galigo 2010 2011 [89]
Multinational:  Indonesia  Netherlands  India  South Africa  Sri Lanka Archives of the Dutch East India Company 2003 2003 [90]
 Malaysia Batu Bersurat Terengganu (Inscribed Stone of Terengganu) 2008 2009 [91]
 Malaysia Correspondence of the late Sultan of Kedah (1882–1943) 2001 2001 [92]
 Malaysia Hikayat Hang Tuah 2001 2001 [93]
 Malaysia Sejarah Melayu (The Malay Annals) 2001 2001 [94]
Multinational:  Germany  United Kingdom  Myanmar The Golden Letter of the Burmese King Alaungphaya to King George II of Great Britain 2014 2015 [95]
 Myanmar Myazedi Quadrilingual Stone Inscription 2014 2015 [96]
 Myanmar Maha Lawkamarazein or Kuthodaw Inscription Shrines 2012 2013 [97]
 Myanmar King Bayinnaung Bell Inscription 2016 2017 [98]
 Philippines Presidential Papers of Manuel L. Quezon 2010 2011 The Manuel L. Quezon Papers, University of Michigan Library [99]
 Philippines José Maceda Collection 2007 2007 U.P. Center for Ethnomusicology, Quezon City [100]
 Philippines Radio Broadcast of the Philippine People Power Revolution 2003 2003 [101]
 Philippines Philippine Paleographs (Hanunoo, Build, Tagbanua and Pala’wan) 1999 1999 National Museum, Manila [102]
 Thailand "The Minute Books of the Council of the Siam Society", 100 years of recording international cooperation in research and the dissemination of knowledge in the arts and sciences 2012 2013 [103]
 Thailand Epigraphic Archives of Wat Pho 2010 2011 [104]
 Thailand Archival Documents of King Chulalongkorn's Transformation of Siam (1868–1910) 2008 2009 [105]
 Thailand The King Ram Khamhaeng Inscription 2003 2003 [106]
 Timor-Leste On the Birth of a Nation: Turning points 2012 2013 [107]
 Vietnam Stone Stele Records of Royal Examinations of the Le and Mac Dynasties (1442–1779) 2010 2011 [108]
 Vietnam Woodblocks of Nguyen Dynasty 2008 2009 [109]

UNESCO Biosphere Reserves of Southeast Asia[edit]

Launched in 1971, UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.

MAB combines the natural and social sciences, economics and education to improve human livelihoods and the equitable sharing of benefits, and to safeguard natural and managed ecosystems, thus promoting innovative approaches to economic development that are socially and culturally appropriate, and environmentally sustainable.

Its World Network of Biosphere Reserves currently counts more than 650 biosphere reserves in at least 120 countries all over the world. Southeast Asia is currently represented by 29 Biosphere Reserves; 1 from Cambodia, 10 from Indonesia, 2 from Malaysia, 1 from Myanmar, 2 from the Philippines, 4 from Thailand, and 9 from Vietnam. Brunei, Laos, Timor-Leste, and Singapore currently has no inscribed biosphere reserves in the list.[110]

Country Biosphere Reserve Representative Image Designation Year (Periodic Reviews) Description References
 Cambodia Tonle Sap 1997 (2012) [111]
 Indonesia Cibodas 1977 (2011) [112]
 Indonesia Komodo 1977 (1999, 2013) [113]
 Indonesia Lore Lindu 1977 (1999, 2013) [114]
 Indonesia Tanjung Puting 1977 (1998, 2013) [115]
 Indonesia Gunung Leuser 1981 (1998, 2013) [116]
 Indonesia Siberut 1981 (1998, 2013) [117]
 Indonesia Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu 2009 [118]
 Indonesia Wakatobi 2012 [119]
 Indonesia Bromo Tengger Semeru-Arjuno 2015 [120]
 Indonesia Taka Bonerate-Kepulauan Selayar 2015 [121]
 Indonesia Belambangan 2016 [122]
 Indonesia Berbak-Sembilang 2018 [123]
 Indonesia Batang Kerihun-Danau Sentarum Kapuas Hulu 2018 [124]
 Indonesia Rinjani-Lombok 2018 [125]
 Malaysia Tasik Chini 2009 [126]
 Malaysia Crocker Range 2014 [127]
 Myanmar Inlay Lake 2015 [128]
 Philippines Puerto Galera 1997 (2014) [129]
 Philippines Palawan 1990 (2012) [130]
 Philippines Albay 2016 [131]
 Thailand Sakaerat 1976 (1999) [132]
 Thailand Hauy Tak Teak 1997 (1999, 2014) [133]
 Thailand Mae Sa-Kog Ma 1997 (1999) [134]
 Thailand Ranong 1997 (2011, 2014) [135]
 Vietnam Can Gio Mangrove 2001 [136]
 Vietnam Dong Nai 2001 (2012) - Extended in 2011 and renamed from Cat Tien [137]
 Vietnam Cat Ba 2004 [138]
 Vietnam Red River Delta 2004 [139]
 Vietnam Kien Giang 2006 [140]
 Vietnam Western Nghe An 2007 [141]
 Vietnam Mui Ca Mau 2009 [142]
 Vietnam Cu Lao Cham - Hoi An 2009 [143]
 Vietnam Langbiang 2015 [144]

UNESCO Executive Board[edit]

Currently, 4 Southeast Asian countries are serving as members of the UNESCO Executive Board. Vietnam and Malaysia's terms shall expire in 2019, while the Philippines and Indonesia's terms shall expire in 2021. The Philippines has expressed a possible UNESCO Director-General bid in 2021 or 2025. The country has cited its possible candidate to be Senator Loren Legarda, a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change National Adaptation Plan Champion, United Nations Global Champion for Resilience, Dangal ng Haraya Patron of Arts and Culture, Chevalier/Cavaliere to France and Italy, and an Honorary Royalty to the Indigenous Peoples of Mindanao, Panay, and the Cordilleras. She has also been cited by the United States as one of the most powerful woman in the Philippines and Southeast Asia. She initiated the formation of the Climate Vulnerable Forum, which encompasses initially 20 countries worldwide. The 10-nation ASEAN bloc, Timor-Leste, and Papua New Guinea support the possible candidature of the Philippines. The United States, Russia, Japan, China, and the Latin American bloc have expressed similar support as well.[7][8]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Extended inscription in 2000 to include natural criterion (i) (in present nomenclature criterion (vii)).
  2. ^ Extended in 2009 and name change from Tubbataha Reef Marine Park to the present name.

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