List of territorial disputes

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Territorial disputes have occurred throughout history, over lands around the world. Bold indicates one claimant's full control; italics indicates one or more claimants' partial control.

Ongoing disputes between UN member/observer states[edit]


Territory Claimants Notes
Abyei, Heglig, Jodha, Kafia Kingi and Kaka  Sudan
 South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan have claimed the area after the civil war that led to South Sudan's independence. Heglig was controlled by South Sudan in mid-April 2012 but retaken by Sudan. Abyei was taken in May 2012.
Banc du Geyser  Madagascar
France claims the reef as part of the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Bassas da India, Europa Island and Juan de Nova Island  France
De facto part of the French territory of French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Ceuta,[2] Melilla, other plazas de soberanía  Spain
Ceuta and Melilla are administered by Spain as autonomous cities.

An incident on Perejil Island happened in 2002, after which both countries agreed to return to status quo.[3]

Chagos Archipelago  United Kingdom
United Kingdom administers the archipelago as part of the British Indian Ocean Territory.
Doumeira Mountain and Doumeira Island  Eritrea
Basis of the Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict of 2008. Disputed territory occupied by Eritrea following withdrawal of Qatari peacekeepers in June 2017.[5][6] Alternatively transliterated as the Dumaira Mountains.[5]
Glorioso Islands  France
De facto part of the French territory of French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Hala'ib Triangle and Bir Tawil  Egypt
Previously under joint administration; Egypt now maintains full de facto control of the Hala'ib Triangle. The boundaries Egypt and Sudan claim to get the Hala'ib Triangle both leave out Bir Tawil, resulting in Bir Tawil being a de jure and de facto no man's land.
Ilemi Triangle  Kenya
 South Sudan
De facto controlled by Kenya. Ethiopian tribes have used and made raids in the land, but the Ethiopian government has never made a claim to it, agreeing it was Sudanese in 1902, 1907 and 1972 treaties.[8][9][10]
KaNgwane and Ingwavuma  South Africa
Eswatini claims territories which it states were confiscated during colonial times.[11] The area claimed by Eswatini is the former bantustan of KaNgwane, which now forms the northern parts of Jozini and uMhlabuyalingana local municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal, and the southern part of Nkomazi, the southeastern part of Umjindi and the far eastern part of Albert Luthuli local municipalities in Mpumalanga.
Koualou village and surrounding area  Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso and Benin retain a border dispute at this 68 km2 triangular area of land near the tripoint border with Togo.[12][13] In a 2008 meeting, it was declared that the territory was a neutral zone, neither Burkinabé nor Beninese.[12] According to the UN Refugee Agency in 2015, there were issues of children being born stateless in the area, however a Beninese civil registration office has taken control of registering births in the area.[14]
Kpéaba village area (near Sipilou/Siquita)  Ivory Coast
The Guinean military occupied this village for 1 month from January to February 2013, before withdrawing in preparation of talks.[15] In December 2016, Guinea soldiers and civilians attacked the village, killing 1 and wounding several others, before returning to their side of the border.[16] According to the Guinean Minister of Defence, the Guinean army had been asked not to send any soldiers to this area and had no involvement in this incident.[17]
Area near Logoba/Moyo District  South Sudan
Border near Chiengi, Lunchinda-Pweto Province  Zambia
 Democratic Republic of Congo
Dormant dispute.[citation needed]
Mayotte  France
Under the 2009 referendum, the population supported becoming an overseas department of France, and so became one on March 31, 2011.
Islands in Mbamba Bay, Lake Nyasa  Tanzania
Lundo Is. and Mbambo Is. are claimed as part of the lake, as Malawi claims to the shore based on 1890 Anglo-German treaty. See Lake Malawi#Tanzania–Malawi dispute.
Mbañie Island, Cocotiers and Congas Island  Gabon
 Equatorial Guinea
Contested islands in Corisco Bay, valuable for their oil.[19][20]
Migingo Island vicinity, and, farther north, the vicinity of the islands of Lolwe, Oyasi, Remba, Ringiti and Sigulu, all a maritime rights dispute in Lake Victoria.  Kenya
Several islands in the Congo River  Republic of the Congo
 Democratic Republic of Congo
Several islands in the Ntem River  Cameroon
 Equatorial Guinea
Several villages near the Okpara River  Benin
Orange River border line  Namibia
 South Africa
Namibia claims the border lies along the middle of the river, while South Africa claims it lies along the north bank.
Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island  Eritrea
The Rufunzo Valley and Sabanerwa  Rwanda
Rukwanzi Island and the Semliki River valley  Democratic Republic of Congo
Sindabezi Island  Zambia
Socotra Archipelago  Yemen
Somalia, while not formally claiming the archipelago, asked for the United Nations to look into "the status" of the Socotran archipelago (i.e., whether or not it "should" belong to Yemen or rather Somalia).[22]
Tromelin Island  France
De facto part of the French territory of French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Wadi Halfa Salient  Egypt
Western Sahara  Morocco
 Western Sahara
Territory occupied by Morocco (80%) since 1975 outside of the international law, and classified by the UN as a Non-Self-Governing Territory to decolonize.


Territorial claims in the South China Sea
Territory Claimants Notes
Ashmore and Cartier Islands  Australia
Indonesia argues that the islands, known in Indonesian as Kepulauan Pasir, were first discovered and inhabited by local fishermen from Lesser Sunda Islands, which were then part of Dutch East Indies.[23][24][25]
Aarsal, Deir El Aachayer, Kfar Qouq, Mazraat Deir al-Ashayer, Qaa, Qasr and Tuffah  Lebanon
Shatt al-Arab  Iran
Abu Musa  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Greater and Lesser Tunbs  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Zirku Island, Sir Abu Nu’ayr[26]  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Nagorno-Karabakh region and seven adjacent districts  Artsakh
Internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan,[27] de facto controlled by the Nagorno-Karabakh supported by Armenia.
Bhutanese enclaves in Tibet, namely Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar, Tarchen, Doklam and Zuthulphuk  China
Gilgit Baltistan & Azad Kashmir Pakistan Pakistan
India India
Administered by Pakistan and claimed by India. Part of the Kashmir conflict.
Hatay Province  Turkey
Territory annexed by Turkey in 1939, ceded from Syria under the French Mandate of Syria; the annexation was never formally recognized by Syria after its independence.
Jammu and Kashmir India India
Pakistan Pakistan
Part of the Kashmir conflict. Both India and Pakistan claim the former independent princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, leading to the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947. A UN-mediated ceasefire put a halt to the conflict in January 1949. The UN resolution called for both the countries to demilitarise the region, following which a plebiscite would be held. However, no demilitarisation plan acceptable to both the countries could be agreed. The countries fought two further wars in 1965 and 1971. Following the latter war, the countries reached the Simla Agreement, agreeing on a Line of Control between their respective regions and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations. An armed insurgency broke out in 1989 in the Indian administered part of Kashmir, demanding "independence". Pakistan is believed to provide arms and training to the militants.[28][29][30][31]
Various areas: Dak Jerman/Dak Duyt, Dak Dang/Dak Huyt, and the La Drang area.  Cambodia
David Gareja monastery complex boundary dispute  Georgia
Depsang Plains, Demchok, Chumar, Kaurik, Shipki La, Barahoti, Jadhang, Lapthal, Nelang, Pulam Sumda and Sang  China
Disputed areas located between Aksai Chin and Nepal.
Doi Lang  Myanmar
Fasht Ad Dibal and Qit'at Jaradah  Bahrain
These were not included in the 2001 International Court of Justice judgement, as low-tide elevations.
Several areas in the Fergana Valley  Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan: A tiny Kyrgyz village, Barak, in the Fergana Valley region (where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet) is bordered on the north, west and south by Uzbekistan. Tajikistan: There are three Tajik exclaves, all of them in the Fergana Valley. One of them, the village of Sarvan, is surrounded by Uzbek territory, whereas the remaining two, the village of Vorukh and a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach, are each surrounded by Kyrgyz territory. Uzbekistan: There are four Uzbek exclaves, all inside Kyrgyz territory in the Fergana Valley. Two of them are the towns of Sokh and Shakhimardan and the other two the tiny territories of Chong-Kara and Dzhangail. There may be a fifth Uzbek exclave inside of Kyrgyzstan.[32] Most of the border in the area is still not demarcated.
Western Golan Heights  Israel
Syrian territory captured by Israel in 1967 (the Six-Day War), and unilaterally annexed by Israel in 1981. In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favor of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497; United Nations, December 5, 2008). During the Syrian civil war period, Syrian Arab Republic had lost direct control of the Eastern Golan areas and retreated from cease-fire line with Israel (in favor of various rebel and Jihadist groups), though did regain the area in 2018.
Isfara Valley  Kyrgyzstan
Ambalat  Indonesia
24-mile stretch of border at pass of the Kabaw[33]  India
India's government acknowledges that its border with Myanmar is not yet demarcated, but does not consider there to be a "dispute".[34]
Israel within the Green Line  Israel
State of Palestine Palestine
See Israeli–Palestinian conflict
The West Bank and eastern Jerusalem  Israel
 Civilian rule by Israel Proper applied over East Jeruslaem
 Military Occupation has jurisdiction over all matters in Area C and security-related matters in Area B

State of Palestine Palestine
has jurisdiction over all matters in Area A and civil matters in Area B

See Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Kalapani region, the smaller Susta River dispute and the smaller still Antudanda and Nawalparasi disputes India India
Nepal Nepal
Kalapani is administered by India while Susta is administered by Nepal. The few remaining border disagreements with Nepal since delineation was announced 98% complete in 2019.[35]. See Territorial disputes of India and Nepal.
Artsvashen exclave of Gegharkunik province, de jure part of Armenia; Karki exclave of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, Yukhari Askipara and Barkhudarli, both exclaves of Qazakh Rayon de jure part of Azerbaijan; "Yaradullu" is controlled by Azerbaijan along with occupying the much larger de jure Armenian territory surrounding it.  Armenia
Azerbaijan and Armenia have controlled these areas as part of the wider Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict.
James Shoal  China
Khuriya Muriya Islands  Oman
Korean Peninsula (Korea)  North Korea
 South Korea
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea administers North Korea, but Article 1 of the Constitution of North Korea reads: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist State representing the interests of all the Korean people." The Republic of Korea administers South Korea, but Article 3 of the Constitution of South Korea reads: "The territory of the Republic of Korea shall consist of the Korean peninsula and its adjacent islands."
Kula Kangri and mountainous areas to the west of this peak, plus the western Haa District of Bhutan  China
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1]
South Kuril Islands (Northern Territories)[1]  Russia
Takeshima/Dokdo  South Korea
Occupied by South Korea since 1954 but claimed by Japan in 1905.[citation needed]
Certain islands in the Naf River  Bangladesh
Noktundo  Russia
 North Korea
Part of the EEZ generated by the Natuna Islands  China
 Taiwan[note 1]
The People's Republic of China claims the water off the Natuna Islands that fall under the Nine-dash line claim are traditional Chinese fishing grounds. The Republic of China on Taiwan also claims the area.[39]
Paracel Islands[1]  China
 Taiwan[note 1]
Entirely controlled by the PRC but claimed by Vietnam and the ROC.[citation needed]
"Pedra Branca"; several islets at the eastern entrance to the Singapore Strait  Singapore
The International Court of Justice rendered its decision on 23 May 2008 that sovereignty over Pedra Branca belongs to Singapore; sovereignty over Middle Rocks belongs to Malaysia. It said sovereignty over South Ledge would remain disputed until the states could determine the ownership of the territorial waters in which it is located.[40]
"Point 20"; a small area of land reclaimed from the sea by Singapore  Singapore
Malaysia claims the land was reclaimed in its territorial waters.
O'Tangav area (claimed as part of Stung Treng Province)  Laos
Part of Poipet commune  Thailand
Prachinburi area  Thailand
Area near Preah Vihear Temple (Khao Phra Wihan)  Thailand
Temple complex awarded to Cambodia by an International Court of Justice ruling in 1962; "promontory" measuring 0.3 km2 immediately adjacent to temple awarded to Cambodia by ICJ ruling in 2013; both countries acknowledge continuing dispute over an additional 4.3 km2 immediately northwest of the 2013 ruling's area.
Phú Quốc island and Thổ Chu island area  Vietnam
These islands were lost to Vietnam by agreement in 1992 and 2005 by the government of the Cambodia People Party. many Cambodian still want to get it back. In 2018, The Khmer Rise Party has collected thumbprints on a petition to push the government to renegotiate the ownership of Phu Quoc (Koh Tral) island.[citation needed]
Qaruh and Umm al Maradim  Kuwait
 Saudi Arabia
Sabah (North Borneo)  Malaysia
The Philippines retains a claim on the eastern part of Sabah (see North Borneo dispute) on the basis claimed by the Government of the Philippines that the territory is only leased by the former Sultanate of Sulu to British North Borneo Company, of which the Philippines argued that it should be the successor state of all Sulu past territories.[1]
Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates border dispute  United Arab Emirates
 Saudi Arabia
Scarborough Shoal  China
Philippines Philippines
Controlled by the PRC since the 2012 Scarborough Shoal standoff.
Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai or Diaoyu Dao)[1]  Japan
 Taiwan[note 1]
Controlled by Japan but claimed by the PRC and ROC.
Trans-Karakoram Tracts  China
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1] Controlled by the PRC.
Shebaa Farms  Israel
Located at the Lebanese-Syrian border, this 27.5 km2 piece of land was annexed by Israel in 1981, alongside the Golan Heights, and is thus disputed by Lebanon and Syria, who are both adjacent to the land, as well as Israel.[41]
Siachen Glacier and Saltoro Ridge area India India
Controlled by both nations equally after the Kargil war but still is a disputed territory for both countries.
Sir Creek India India
A dispute over where in the estuary the line falls; only small areas of marsh land are disputed, but significant maritime territory is involved. It is divided mid-creek.
Arunachal Pradesh India India
Controlled by India but claimed by the PRC and ROC who dispute the validity of the McMahon Line.
Ladakh India India
Spratly Islands  China

 Taiwan (de facto)[note 1]
 Philippines (part)
 Malaysia (part)
 Brunei (part)

Each of the claimant countries except Brunei controls one or more of the individual islands.
Parts of Three Pagodas Pass  Myanmar
The islands of Ukatnyy, Zhestky and Malyy Zhemchuzhnyy[42]  Russia
Ungar-Too (Ungar-Tepa) mountain[43][44]  Uzbekistan
Vozrozhdeniya Island (now a peninsula)  Kazakhstan
Limbang District  Malaysia
Limbang District was part of Brunei until it was forced to cede it to the Raj of Sarawak in 1890. Since then Brunei is divided territorially into two. It was claimed by Brunei in 1967 in order to reconnect the country. It forms the main part of the Brunei–Malaysia_border#Disputes. Malaysia claimed to settle the issue in 2009, however this was disputed by Brunei.


Territory Claimants Notes
Matthew and Hunter Islands[1]  Vanuatu
Minerva Reefs  Tonga
Fiji claims that the entire reef is submerged at high tide, negating use of Minerva as a basis for any sovereignty or maritime EEZ claim by Tonga under the rules of UNCLOS.
Swains Island[1] United States United States
Tokelau's claim is unsupported by New Zealand, of whom Tokelau is a dependency. New Zealand formally recognises the USA's sovereignty over Swains Island.[45][clarification needed]
Wake Island[1] United States United States
 Marshall Islands


Territory Claimants Notes
Russia–Ukraine border  Russia
Since 2001 Russia delays an establishment of the border with Ukraine.[46]
Tuzla Island and Strait of Kerch; Sarych The conflict arose in 2003 when the Russian authorities started to build a dam towards the island. Ukraine then established a border garrison on the island for a closer surveillance. The reason for the conflict was the fact that Tuzla island's strategic location gave Ukraine full rights over the main channel in the Strait of Kerch and, thus, the access to the Sea of Azov. The conflict was based on the division of the Black Sea Fleet and a lease agreement of the Sevastopol Naval facilities.
Sea of Azov ("Mutual jurisdiction")[47] On 25 November 2018 Russia blocked three Ukrainian Navy vessels from entering Sea of Azov.[48]
Crimea In 2014, Russian forces occupied and annexed the Crimean peninsula, seizing it from Ukrainian territories. Russian claims to Crimea are not internationally recognized.[49] The United Nations, through General Assembly Resolution 68/262, affirmed that Crimea was part of Ukraine and that Russia's annexation is invalid.[50] Several nations imposed international sanctions on Russia in reaction to its action.
Aegean dispute, Imia/Kardak  Greece
Broad number of delimitation disputes about a.o. national airspace, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones. Includes Imia/Kardak dispute.
Mont Blanc summit dispute  France
France asserts that the principal peaks on the Mont Blanc massifDôme du Goûter, Punta Helbronner, and Mont Blanc lie in French territory, while Italy asserts that the summits are shared.[51]
Carlingford Lough and Lough Foyle boundary dispute  Ireland
 United Kingdom
Lough Foyle divides County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, and County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Carlingford Lough divides County Louth, Republic of Ireland, and County Down, Northern Ireland.[52][53]
Gibraltar  United Kingdom
Dispute over the interpretation of the Treaty of Utrecht and the location of the border.
Dollart bay boundary dispute  Germany
The exact course of the border through this bay is disputed,[54] yet the countries have agreed to disagree by signing a treaty in 1960.[55]
Olivenza and Vila Real (including the municipality of Táliga)  Spain
In 1801, during the War of the Oranges, Spain, with French military support, occupied the territory of Olivenza (in Portuguese Olivença). During the Treaty of Vienna (1815), the signatory powers (including Spain) agreed with the Portuguese arguments concerning its claim on Olivença but Spain never fulfilled its duty of giving the city of Olivença and its territory back to Portugal.
Croatia-Serbia border dispute  Croatia
Limited areas along the Danube
Parts of Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar-Syrmia Counties and West and South Bačka Districts
Island of Šarengrad
Island of Vukovar
Croatia-Slovenia border disputes  Slovenia
Gulf of Piran An agreement was signed (and ratified by Croatia's parliament on 20 November 2009) to pursue binding arbitration to both the land and maritime portions of this continuing dispute.

In 2015 collusion between the Slovenian judge on the arbitration panel and a representative from the Slovenian government was uncovered. The Croatian Sabor voted to withdraw from the arbitration, citing allegations of significant breaches of arbitration rules by Slovenia as the reason.

Despite this the arbitration tribunal continued its work, issuing a ruling in 2017.[56]

Military complex near Sveta Gera The complex is in the area of Žumberak/Gorjanci
Prevlaka  Croatia
Sastavci  Serbia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tip of the Klek peninsula, and the islands of Veliki Školj and Mali Školj (near Neum)  Croatia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina

North America[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Hans Island  Canada
 Denmark ( Greenland)
Claimed by both Canada and The Kingdom of Denmark (on behalf of Greenland).
Continental shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles (370 km)  Cuba
 United States
Overlap on the eastern gap of the Gulf of Mexico between an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from Cuba, an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from Mexico and an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from the United States. (The case of the western gap was solved by a treaty between Mexico and the United States of America on the delimitation of the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles, of June 9, 2000.)[57]
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base  Cuba
 United States
Prior to the Cuban Revolution of 1959 the land was leased to the United States. Following the revolution and change in government the Cuban government has consistently protested against the U.S. presence on Cuban soil, demanded their exit and regards their continued presence as an illegal occupation under international law, alleging that the base is imposed on Cuba by force.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon  Canada

Territory disputed between Canada and the United States[edit]

Territory Canada Canadian claimant United States U.S. claimant
Machias Seal Island New Brunswick Maine
North Rock New Brunswick Maine
Strait of Juan de Fuca British Columbia Washington
Dixon Entrance British Columbia Alaska
Beaufort Sea Northwest Territories, Yukon Alaska
Northwest Passage and some other Arctic waters Canadian territorial waters U.S. claims navigation rights

Central America and the Caribbean[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Isla Aves  Venezuela
Dominica abandoned the claim to the island in 2007, but continues to claim the adjacent seas, as do some neighboring states.
Bajo Nuevo Bank  Colombia
 United States
Honduras has recognized the sovereignty of Colombia; other claimants have not. On November 19, 2012, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Colombia has sovereignty over Bajo Nuevo.[58]
Southern half of Belize  Belize
Guatemala formerly claimed all of Belize.
Conejo Island  Honduras
 El Salvador
Navassa Island [1]  United States
Sapodilla Cay  Belize
Guatemala formerly claimed all of Belize.
Serranilla Bank  Colombia
 United States
Jamaica has recognized the sovereignty of Colombia; other claimants have not. On November 19, 2012, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Colombia has sovereignty over Serranilla.[58]

South America[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Guayana Esequiba (Guyana west of the Essequibo River) and Ankoko Island/Isla de Anacoco  Guyana
Venezuela and Guyana have overlapping maritime area claims as well. Barbados and Guyana have since signed joint cooperation agreement over this area.
Arroyo de la Invernada or Rincón de Artigas and Vila Albornoz  Brazil
Dispute in the 237 km2 (92 sq mi) Invernada River region near Masoller, over which tributary represents the legitimate source of the Quaraí River/Cuareim River (the UN does not officially recognize the claim)
Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands [1]  United Kingdom
Including Shag Rocks. See Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands sovereignty dispute
French Guiana west of the Marouini River  France
Tigri Area east of the Upper Courantyne River  Guyana
The Tigri Area (Dutch: Tigri-gebied) is a wooded area that has been disputed since around 1840 by Suriname and Guyana. It involves the area between the Upper Corentyne River (also called New River), the Coeroeni River and the Kutari River. This triangular area is in Guyana known as the New River Triangle. In 1969 the conflict ran high on and since then the Tigri Area is controlled by Guyana and claimed by Suriname. In 1971 both governments in Trinidad agreed that they continue talks over the border issue and withdraw their military forces from the disputed Triangle. Guyana has never held upon this agreement.
Isla Brasilera/Ilha Brasileira  Brazil
Uruguayan officials claim that the island falls under their Artigas Department (the UN does not officially recognize the claim)
Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-mirim  Bolivia
An island in the river that serves as a border between Bolivia and Brazil, alongside others 80 island not assigned to any country, the island is closer to Bolivia but despite this, is economically dependent of the Brazilian city of Guajará-Mirim, both countries signed in 1958 a treaty that keep the island in a status quo
Gulf of Venezuela and Los Monjes Archipelago surrounding waters  Colombia
Dispute regarding the undefined sea border between both countries.[59]
Southern Patagonian Ice Field between
Monte Fitz Roy and Cerro Murallón[60]
Parts of the border still officially undefined.

Ongoing disputes involving states outside the UN[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Abkhazia  Republic of Abkhazia
Village of Aibga and surrounding area[61][62]  Republic of Abkhazia
Bakassi  Cameroon
 Nigeria (elements)
While Nigeria transferred Bakassi to Cameroon in 2008, elements within Nigeria have declared the territorial cession unconstitutional
Eastern part of Bhutan  Bhutan
 Taiwan[note 1]
North Cyprus  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus (a state with limited recognition) controls and administers the northern part of the island.
Republic of Cyprus claims the whole island.
Macclesfield Bank  China
 Taiwan[note 1]
Mainland China, Hainan, and other islands controlled by the PRC.  China
 Taiwan[note 1]
Moldovan-controlled area of Dubăsari district  Moldova
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
A small area of Gilgit-Baltistan  Pakistan
 Taiwan[note 1][note 2]
Kokkina/Erenköy exclave  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus controls and administers Kokkina, an area separated from the rest of the main land on Northern Cyprus via the land controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.
Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island
(eastern half)
 Taiwan[note 1][note 2]
Generally held to have been resolved in October 2004 by the Complementary Agreement between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on the Eastern Section of the China-Russia Boundary, but the ROC does not recognise any border settlements entered into by the PRC.
Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island
(western half)
 Taiwan[note 1]
Remnant portion of the island formerly claimed entirely by both the PRC and ROC, now part of the wider PRC-ROC dispute.
Hong Kong  China
 Taiwan[note 1]
It is unclear whether the ROC actually claims Hong Kong. Former President Lee Teng-hui claimed that Hong Kong should have been returned to the ROC instead of the PRC because the ROC government had the original manuscript of the Treaty of Nanking.[63] However, no president since Lee has made such claim. The ROC has never governed Hong Kong, and its constitution does not include Hong Kong as its territory.
Northern part of Kachin State  Myanmar
 Taiwan[note 1][note 2]
North part west of the Gaoligong Mountains (高黎貢山) in western Yunnan, China, and the Division of Sagaing: Jiangxinpo (江心坡) and Nankan (南坎).
106.40 square kilometres of formerly Chinese territory in Kazakhstan  Kazakhstan
Kosovo  Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. Its independence is recognized by 97 UN member states.
Kutuzov Island  Russia
Part of the Ryanggang Province  North Korea
 Taiwan[note 1]
Part of the Rasŏn administrative division  North Korea
 Taiwan[note 1]
Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River  Russia
 Taiwan[note 2]
Southern Cameroons  Cameroon
South Ossetia  Republic of South Ossetia
'Border' checkpoint near Strovilia  United Kingdom
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus controls and administers the border checkpoint near Strovilia.
UK's claim in regard to its Sovereign Base Areas
Technically, of course, this also involves  Cyprus; the checkpoint is partially on UN-administered land, and Cyprus claims all of the island. (See: Europe)
Matsu Islands,
Pratas Islands
The government of the People's Republic of China claims the entire island of Taiwan, as well as a number of minor islands, such as Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu, that are controlled by the Republic of China). See also:Anti-Secession Law, Legal status of Taiwan.
Transnistria (including Bendery)  Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Varnita and Copanca  Moldova
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Western Sahara  Morocco
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The United Nations keeps the Western Sahara in its list of Non-Self-Governing Territories and considers the sovereignty issue as unresolved pending a final solution. To that end, the UN sent a mission in the territory to oversee a referendum on self-determination in 1991, but it never happened. Administration was relinquished by Spain in 1976.

Ongoing disputes within a state by internal entities[edit]

Territory Country Internal claimants Notes
Several islands in the Paraná River  Argentina  Entre Ríos
 Santa Fe
Islands: Isla de los Mástiles/La Carlota, Isla Ingeniero Sabino Corsi Norte/Sur and Isla General Juan Pistarini.
Put Point [es]  Mexico Coat of arms of Campeche.svgCampeche
Coat of arms of Quintana Roo.svgQuintana Roo
Coat of arms of Yucatan.svgYucatán
The three states claim three different borders between them.
Mount Kerinci  Indonesia Coat of arms of Jambi.svgJambi
Coat of arms of West Sumatra.svgWest Sumatra
Belgaum  India  Karnataka
Disputed since 1956 when Belgaum district was not transferred to Maharashtra.
As much as a 2,821 km2-wide area in and around the Ibiapaba mountain range  Brazil  Ceará
This dispute originated in an 1880 imperial decree. In 1920 a solution to the dispute was arbitrated but in practice it was never carried out. In 2008 there were new attempted negotiations, but they broke down in 2011, and as of 2013 it is pending either a supreme court decision, a referendum or a possible mutual agreement.[66]
Bandeira de Fernando de Noronha.png Fernando de Noronha  Brazil  Pernambuco
 Rio Grande do Norte
The dispute dates from the colonial period.[67]
Hogenakkal  India  Tamil Nadu
Administered by Tamil Nadu.
Disputed territories of Northern Iraq  Iraq  Iraq proper
 Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraq's autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan claims and controls parts of the governorates of Nineveh, Arbil, Kirkuk and Diyala.
Lubicon traditional territory between the Peace River and Athabasca River and north of Lesser Slave Lake  Canada  Alberta
 Lubicon Lake Indian Nation (Cree)
Northern Alberta
Southern edge of Labrador  Canada  Newfoundland and Labrador
This was formerly an international dispute between Canada, which includes Quebec, and the Dominion of Newfoundland, then an independent country. Quebec has never accepted the border.
Songling District and Jiagedaqi District  China  Inner Mongolia
The two districts are owned by Inner Mongolia, but Jiagedaqi District(urban) was established as capital of Daxinganling Prefecture, Heilongjiang Province, resulting it and adjacent Songling District under effective control of Heilongjiang Province. Hulunbuir City(Prefecture), Inner Mongolia actively disputes these two districts, as they formerly belongs to Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir.
Belén de Bajirá  Colombia Flag of Antioquia Department.svg Antioquia
Flag of Chocó.svg Chocó
Disputed since 2000, both Departments of Antioquia and Chocó have claimed the corregimiento as part of their own respective municipalities. In 2014, amidst a rise of tensions between the claimants, the National Government under the Geographic Institute Agustín Codazzi formally started a process to find a solution for the dispute.[68]
A wide section from the 35th parallel north to one mile south.  United States  Tennessee
Due to an inaccurate measurement in 1818, Georgia claims the correct 35th latitude north, and does so in a chance of a drought, it would have access to the Tennessee River.[69] See Tennessee-Georgia water dispute.
51,000 acres straddling the 42nd parallel north  United States  California
Location errors in an 1868–1870 survey to demarcate the Oregon-California border created a dispute between Oregon and California, which upon statehood had established the 42nd parallel north as its de jure border, based on the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty between the U.S. and Spain. The dispute continues to this day, as Oregon has about 31,000 acres of California, while California has about 20,000 acres of Oregon.[70] The border should follow the 42nd parallel straight west from the 120th meridian west to the Pacific. Instead it zigzags, and only one of the many surveyor's markers put down in 1868 actually is on the 42nd parallel.[71][72][73]
New Mexico-Texas Panhandle border  United States  Texas
 New Mexico
The border was defined as the 103rd meridian but an 1859 survey marked it too far west, mistakenly putting present-day towns of Farwell, Texline, and a part of Glenrio in Texas. New Mexico's draft constitution used the 103rd meridian as intended. The New Mexico Senate passed a bill to file a lawsuit to recover the strip, but it has not become law.[74] The land and towns are administered by Texas.
Parts of Fort Bonifacio  Philippines  Makati
Disputed since 1983. Taguig claims more than 729 hectares of land in Fort Bonifacio, an area administered by Makati. On August 5, 2013, the Court of Appeals Sixth Division ruled that Makati has legal jurisdiction over the area, thus invalidating Taguig's claim.[75] Taguig has not abandoned its claims and will petition the Court of Appeals to have the decision revoked.[76] Pateros also claims the area and has filed a petition before the Taguig Regional Court Branch 271 in 2012 concerning its claim. Pateros reiterated its claims in 2013 following the decision of the Court of Appeals awarding Makati jurisdiction over the area.[77][78]
Fiat Auto Poland factory and nearest areas  Poland  Tychy
The territory has historically been a part of the town of Bieruń. In years 1975–1991 Bieruń was a part of Tychy. The Fiat Auto Poland (formerly FSM factory) remaining in Tychy was a condition of Bieruń's separation. In the 90s, Bieruń has regained the Homera osiedle which was part of the disputed area.[79]
Prigorodny District, North Ossetia–Alania  Russia North Ossetia–Alania
Main article: East Prigorodny Conflict


The Antarctic Treaty System, formed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica and provides administration for the continent, which is carried out through consultative member meetings. It prevents new territorial claims of all signatories (except the U.S. and Russia) for as long as the treaty is in force. However, it is not a final settlement; parties can choose to withdraw from the System at any time. Furthermore, only a minority of states have signed it, and it is not formally sanctioned by the United Nations. Thus, Antarctica remains the only part of the planet any (non-signatory) state can still lay claim to as terra nullius (on the grounds of it not having been part of any existing state's legal and effective territory).

Territory Claimants Antarctic territory
Area between 25°W and 53°W  United Kingdom
 British Antarctic Territory
 Argentine Antarctica
Area between 53°W and 74°W  United Kingdom
 British Antarctic Territory
 Argentine Antarctica
 Antártica Chilena Province
Area between 74°W and 80°W  United Kingdom
 British Antarctic Territory
 Antártica Chilena Province

Historical disputes, subsequently settled[edit]


Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Agacher Strip  Burkina Faso
c. 1960 1986 Following repeated military clashes between Burkina Faso and Mali over the Agacher Strip, the International Court of Justice resolved the conflict in 1986 by dividing the disputed area approximately equally between the two countries.[80]
Aouzou Strip  Chad
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya
c. 1973 1994 In 1994 the International Court of Justice decision found in favour of Chad sovereignty over the Aouzou strip, and ended the Libyan claim.
Badme  Ethiopia
1993 2018 Basis of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War which began in 1998. The territory was handed over to Eritrea following a joint statement at the Eritrea–Ethiopia summit in 2018.
Bakassi  Cameroon
1913 2006 This area was handed over by Nigeria to Cameroon following an International Court of Justice ruling and the Greentree Agreement.
Bure  Ethiopia
2002 2008 Eritrea has accepted the decision and no longer disputes this location.[82]
Burkina Faso–Niger border dispute  Burkina Faso
c. 1960 2013 The International Court of Justice redefined the border between Burkina Faso and Niger in 2013. In 2015 the ruling was implemented by exchanging 18 towns between the two countries.[83]
Part of the Kahemba region  Angola
 Democratic Republic of Congo
2007 Following a March 2007 report on the disputed area on the joint border in the Kahemba region, the Congolese interior minister admitted the territory was in fact part of Angola and agreed to send a technical team to demarcate the border along colonial era lines.[84] The countries agreed to end the dispute in July 2007.[85]
Lété Island and nearby islands in the Niger River  Niger
c. 1960 2005 In 2005 the International Court of Justice awarded Lété and 15 of the other disputed islands to Niger, and the remaining nine islands to Benin.[86]
Sedudu  Botswana
1890 1999 In 1999 the International Court of Justice awarded Sedudu to Botswana, ending the Namibian claim.[87]
Tsorona-Zalambessa  Ethiopia
2002 2008 Eritrea has accepted the decision and no longer disputes this location.[82]
Yenga (border hamlet), and left bank of the Makona and Moa rivers  Sierra Leone
c. 1995 2013 The two heads of state settled this dispute in 2013.[88]

Asia and the Pacific[edit]

Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Tiran and Sanafir Islands  Saudi Arabia
1906 2017 These islands were transferred to Saudi Arabia in 2017.
Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary between Bangladesh and India India India
Bangladesh Bangladesh
1974 2014 India and Bangladesh had engaged in eight rounds of bilateral negotiations starting 1974 but it remained inconclusive until 2009. In October 2009, Bangladesh served India with notice of arbitration proceedings under the UNCLOS .

The Arbitration Tribunal delivered the ruling on 7 July 2014 and settled the dispute.[89]

Indo-Bangladesh enclaves, adverse possessions and undemarcated land boundaries India India
Bangladesh Bangladesh
1947 2015 Following Partition of Bengal (1947), the issues of adverse possessions, enclaves and unmarked boundary arose. Inside the main part of Bangladesh, there were 111 Indian enclaves (17,160.63 acres), while inside the main part of India, there were 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (7,110.02 acres). In 1974 Bangladesh approved a proposed treaty, Land Boundary Agreement, to exchange all enclaves within each other's territories, but India did not ratify it. Another agreement was agreed upon in 2011 to exchange enclaves and adverse possessions. With respect to adverse possessions, India received 2,777.038 acres of land and transferred 2,267.682 acres to Bangladesh. India ratified the agreement by constitutional amendment in May 2015.[90]
Muhurichar river island India India
1974 2011 Historically controlled by India but claimed by Bangladesh, disputed from approximately 1974.[91] An agreement was reached on the demarcation of the border in the area in 2011, [92] and in 2019 the Indian government confirmed that it no longer had any outstanding boundary dispute with Bangladesh.[93]
South Talpatti/New Moore/Purbasha Island  India
c. 1975 2010 This former dispute over a small island never more than two meters above sea level was contested from the island's appearance in the 1970s to its disappearance, likely due to climate change,[94] in the first decade of the 2000s. Though land disputes no longer exist, the maritime boundary was not settled until 2014.[89][95][96][97]
Sakhalin Island  Russian Empire
 Empire of Japan
1845 1875 Japan unilaterally proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island in 1845, but its claims were ignored by the Russian Empire. The 1855 Treaty of Shimoda acknowledged that both Russia and Japan had joint rights of occupation to Sakhalin, without setting a definite territorial demarcation. As the island became settled in the 1860s and 1870s, this ambiguity led to increasing friction between settlers. Attempts by the Tokugawa shogunate to purchase the entire island from the Russian Empire failed, and the new Meiji government was unable to negotiate a partition of the island into separate territories.

In 1875 by the Treaty of Saint Petersburg, Japan agreed to give up its claims on Sakhalin in exchange for undisputed ownership of the Kuril Islands. In 1905 under the Treaty of Portsmouth Japan gained Sakhalin to the 60th parallel, but lost it again in 1945.

Pamir Mountains  Tajikistan
1877 2011 The Tajik Government ceded 1,158 square kilometres (447 sq mi) to the PRC, while PRC relinquished its 28,000 square miles (73,000 km2) claim over the remaining territory with final ratification of a treaty in January 2011.[98]
Palmas Island (modern-day Miangas Island) Philippines Philippine Islands
 Dutch East Indies
1906 1928 Dispute between the United States and the Netherlands over the Palmas island located south of the Philippines, which was then American territory. The Netherlands believed that the islands were part of the Dutch East Indies. The territorial dispute was solved through the Island of Palmas case which decided that the Palmas Island belongs to the Netherlands. Palmas Island, now Miangas Island, is a part of modern Indonesia.
Yalu River (disputed sovereignty of certain islands)[1][note 3]  China
 North Korea
 South Korea
1949 2005 The allocation to North Korea of all of the large islands in the lower Yalu River, including Pidan and Sindo at the mouth, is now clear.[99] The river's maritime rights remain shared between the two nations.
Shaksgam Valley  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
1947 1963 Pakistan relinquished its claim to PR China; India did not.
Sinai Peninsula  Israel
1967 1982 During the Six-Day War Israel claimed Sinai. It was returned in 1982 under the terms of the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.
Taba  Israel
1979 1989 When Egypt and Israel were negotiating the exact position of the border in preparation for the 1979 peace treaty, Israel claimed that Taba had been on the Ottoman side of a border agreed between the Ottomans and British Egypt in 1906 and had, therefore, been in error in its two previous agreements. Although most of Sinai was returned to Egypt in 1982, Taba was the last portion to be returned. The issue was submitted to an international commission. In 1988, the commission ruled in Egypt's favour, and Israel returned Taba to Egypt in 1989.
Turtle Islands Philippines Philippine Islands
 North Borneo
1930 Dispute between the United States and the United Kingdom over the Turtle Islands located south of the Philippines, which was then American territory. In a 1930 treaty the United Kingdom acknowledge American sovereignty over the islands and was agreed upon that the British would remain administering the island until the United States express interest to take over control over the islands after a one-year notice. When the Philippines gained full independence from the United States in 1946, the Philippines invoked the treaty and the British turned over the islands to the Philippines in 1947.
West Bank, including East Jerusalem  Israel
1967 1988 During the Six-Day War Israel conquered these territories from Jordan. Jordan later renounced the claim on the territory, supporting instead its inclusion in a future Palestine.
Ligitan and Sipadan  Malaysia
1969 2002 The 2002 International Court of Justice ruling awarded both islands to Malaysia, but left unsettled the maritime boundary immediately southwest and west of the islands between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Hawar Islands  Qatar
1971 2001 Formerly disputed between Qatar and Bahrain, it was settled by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague. In the June 2001 decision, Bahrain kept the Hawar Islands and Qit'at Jaradah but dropped claims to Janan Island and Zubarah on mainland Qatar, while Qatar retained significant maritime areas and their resources. The agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the border with Saudi Arabia and Saudi-led mediation efforts continue.
Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai (de)  Indonesia
 East Timor
2002 2004 Ceded by Timor-Leste to Indonesia in August 2004.
Saudi Arabia–Yemen border demarcation dispute  Saudi Arabia
1934 2000 Settled by the Treaty of Jeddah (2000).


Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Alaska boundary dispute  United States
1821 1903 Disputed between the United States and Canada (then a British Dominion with its foreign affairs controlled from London). The dispute had been going on between the Russian and British Empires since 1821, and was inherited by the United States as a consequence of the Alaska Purchase in 1867. It was resolved by arbitration in 1903 with a delegation that included 3 Americans, 2 Canadians, and 1 British delegate that became the swing vote. By a 4 to 2 vote, the final resolution favored the American position. Canada did not get an outlet from the Yukon gold fields to the sea. The disappointment and anger in Canada was directed less at the United States, and more at the British government for betraying Canadian interests in pursuit of a friendly relationship between Britain and the United States.
Aroostook War  United States
United Kingdom British North America
1838 1842 Disputed border between the state of Maine and the provinces of New Brunswick and Lower Canada.
Atacama border dispute  Bolivia
1879 1904
Guaíra Falls/Sete Quedas  Brazil
1872 1980 The disputed islands were submerged by the reservoir of Itaipú.
Chamizal dispute  United States
1898 1963 Disputed border within the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez region.
Cresap's War  Maryland
1730 1767 Dispute over the northern border of the Province of Maryland and southern border of Province of Pennsylvania, particularly west of the Susquehanna River. Settled by the drawing of the Mason–Dixon line.
New Hampshire Grants/Vermont New Hampshire

New York


1749 1791 In 1664 King Charles II decided the west bank of the Connecticut River was the eastern boundary of New York, so that that province included all of what later became the state of Vermont. During 1749–64, Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire issued well over a hundred "grants", offering lands for sale west of the river in what would become Vermont. In 1764, King George III attempted to end the dispute by ruling that the region belonged to New York. But New York would not recognize the property claims of numerous settlers whose claims were based on Wentworth's grants, so local governments and militias resisted New York's rule. In 1777, the politicians of the disputed territory declared it independent of New York, Britain, and New Hampshire, calling it the State of Vermont. Vermont existed for 14 years as an unrecognized de facto independent country, considered by New York to be a district in rebellion. Negotiations between New York and Vermont in 1790 removed impediments to Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791.
Delaware Wedge  Delaware
1750s 1921 A gore created when the borders of the colonies Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania were defined. Dispute over the borders between the three colonies dates to the foundation of each during the middle 17th century. A series of defined lines and arcs were laid out by statute to settle the disputes, the most famous of which was the Mason–Dixon line. The Wedge was left out of all three colonies (and later U.S. states), and remained a matter of dispute until it was formally resolved to assign the Wedge to Delaware in 1921.
Eastern shore of the Narragansett Bay Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
Plymouth Colony (to 1691)
Province of Massachusetts Bay (from 1691)
1636 1898 Claimed by both Rhode Island and Plymouth Colony. Plymouth's claim was inherited by the newly created Province of Massachusetts Bay when the latter was created in 1691 from the merger of earlier Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Colonies. A royal decree in 1746 assigned the land to Rhode Island, but Massachusetts continued to press its claim until 1898.
New York – New Jersey Line War  New York
 New Jersey
1701 1756 Dispute over the southern border of Province of New York and the northern border of the Province of New Jersey. Raiding parties kidnapped and burned crops.
Isla Martín García  Argentina
1879 1973 After the Conquest of the Desert was formally launched in 1879, many indigenous leaders captured were confined there. The island was transferred to Argentine Navy jurisdiction in 1886. The island's distance from the Uruguayan territory is less than two miles, and its jurisdictional status was formally established by the Treaty of Río de la Plata between Uruguay and Argentina on November 19, 1973.
Cordillera del Cóndor-Cenepa River  Peru
1828 1998
Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case  Argentina
1881 1902 After the signature of the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina differing interpretations on whether the highest Andean peaks (favouring Argentina) or the continental divide (favouring Chile) was to be considered the boundary.
Puna de Atacama dispute  Argentina
1889 1898
Clipperton Island  Mexico
1897 1931 Disputed between France and Mexico. On January 28, 1931, King Victor Emanuel, selected as a neutral arbitrator, finally declared Clipperton to be a French possession, and it has remained relatively undisputed ever since.
Beagle conflict  Argentina
1898 1982
Río Encuentro-Alto Palena dispute  Argentina
1913 1966
Laguna del Desierto  Argentina
1949 1994
Missouri  United States
 Confederate States
1861 1865 After the Missouri secession, the State of Missouri was claimed by both the United States and Confederate States until the defeat of the Confederacy in the American Civil War
Border of New Hampshire and Canada  United States
 United Kingdom
1783 1842 Ill-defined terms of the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Revolutionary War left the boundary of the state of New Hampshire and Canada in doubt. The lack of a precise definition of the "northwesternmost head of the Connecticut River" as defined by the Treaty of Paris left the land that is now the town of Pittsburg, New Hampshire within the conflicting jurisdiction of both the United States and Great Britain. In 1832 residents of the area established the short-lived Republic of Indian Stream in the area; the minuscule population of the putative nation never exceeded about 300. The boundary was finally settled definitively by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842.
Sverdrup Islands  Norway
 United Kingdom
1928 1930 In 1928 Norway asserted its claim of sovereignty over the Sverdrup Islands. The islands are named after Norwegian explorer Otto Sverdrup, who explored and mapped them from 1898 to 1902 with the vessel Fram, although some were previously inhabited by Inuit people. Sverdrup claimed the islands for Norway, but the Norwegian government did not pursue the claim until 1928. At that point, the Norwegian government raised the claim, primarily to use the islands as bargaining chips in negotiations with the United Kingdom over the status of the Arctic island Jan Mayen and the Antarctic Bouvet Island. On November 11, 1930, Norway ceded the Sverdrup Islands to Canada, in exchange for British recognition of Norway's sovereignty over Jan Mayen.[100]
San Andrés and Providencia  Colombia
1928 2012[101]
Tacna–Arica compromise  Chile
1883 1929
Pacific Ocean Sea border  Chile
1985 2014[102]
Erik the Red's Land  Denmark
1931 1933[103]
Calero Island's northernmost part  Costa Rica
2010 2018


Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Baltic Sea  Poland
1978 2018 Poland has decided to cede to Denmark 80 percent of disputed territory[104]
Bregovo  Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Serbia
1885 1886 Bulgaria and Serbia briefly had a war over a small border village called Bregovo and this has been the recognized border ever since then.
Åland Islands  Finland
1917 1920 Sweden and Finland argued over the control of the Åland Islands (located between Sweden and Finland). The Åland movement (Ålandsrörelsen) wanted Åland to reunite with its old mother country Sweden (Finland and Åland belonged to Sweden before 1809). The movement gathered signatures from over 7000 inhabitants of legal age at the Åland Islands in 1917 (that was about 96% of the population) - they all supported a union with Sweden. When Finland became independent (December 6, 1917) Sweden wanted a plebiscite about the future of the Åland Islands to solve the problem. Finland refused and argued that the Åland Islands had always been a natural part of Finland - even when Finland was under Swedish rule. Sweden appealed to the League of Nations referring to the right of the population to determine which country they should belong to. After studying the matter closely the League of Nations decided Finland should retain sovereignty over the province but that the Åland Islands should be made an autonomous territory. The Swedish Prime Minister said he didn't accept the verdict but he also said that Sweden was not going to use military force to get their claims.[105]
Graham Island  Two Sicilies
Malta Malta
1831 1831 A dispute between the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the British Crown Colony of Malta, the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Spain occurred after the volcanic island appeared in 1831. The British were the first to claim the island as part of Malta, and they were followed by the Two Sicilies and France, while Spain expressed their ambitions to control the island. The island disappeared by December 1831 and the dispute stopped. A Sicilian flag was lowered over the now submerged island in 2000 to show Italian claims to the area. It is no longer disputed by Britain, France, Spain or Malta.
Lampedusa Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily
Malta Malta
1800 1814 The island was controlled by British troops as a de facto part of theMalta Protectorate from 1800 onwards. After a British royal commission was sent there in 1812, the new Governor of Malta Sir Thomas Maitland withdrew British troops and the island was returned to Sicily.
Tenedos  Turkey
1920 1923 On 11 August 1920, following World War I, the Treaty of Sèvres with the defeated Ottoman Empire granted the island to Greece, who joined the war in Allies' side in May 1917. The new Turkish Government of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, based in Ankara, which was not party to the treaty, overthrew the Ottoman government, which signed but did not ratify the treaty. After the Turkish War of Independence ended in Greek defeat in Anatolia, and the fall of David Lloyd George and his Middle Eastern policies after the Carlton Club meeting, the western powers agreed to the Treaty of Lausanne with the new Turkish Republic, in 1923. This treaty made Tenedos and Imbros part of Turkey, and it guaranteed a special autonomous administrative status there to accommodate the Greeks.
Northern Ireland  United Kingdom
1920 1998 Formerly disputed between Ireland and the United Kingdom since partition on 23 December 1920, it was settled by the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, when Ireland amended its constitutional claim. Both countries acknowledged that the territory can join the rest of Ireland if separate referendums in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland approve of the former's cession.
Pytalovo (Abrene in Latvia)  Russia
1991 2007 Pytalovo was a village in the parish of Vyshgorogok, the westernmost part of the Ostrov uyezd, Governorate of Pskov that was ceded from RSFSR to Latvia under the Treaty of Riga (1920) along with parishes of Kachanovo and Tonkovo. In 1940 Latvian Republic was annexed by the Soviet Union and Latvian SSR was established, encompassing the above named territories until 1944 when they were transferred to the district of Ostrov, Pskov Oblast, RSFSR.[106] Since 1991 reestablished Republic of Latvia disputed Russian jurisdiction over the region until the border treaty with Russia was signed in 2007.[107]
Ivangorod, Izborsk and Pechorsky District  Russia
1991 2007 As of 1916, Ivangorod, the eastern suburb of Narva, constituted the westernmost town of the St.Petersburg Governorate on the border with the Governorate of Estonia. The towns of Pechory and Izborsk with respective parishes were the westernmost parts of the Governorate of Pskov. Under the Treaty of Tartu, 1920 the above territories were ceded from RSFSR to the newly-established Republic of Estonia that was annexed by the USSR in 1940 as the Estonian SSR. In 1944 with two decrees of the USSR supreme Council the city of Narva and vicinity was split along Narova river leaving Narva with Estonia and Ivangorod with the Leningrad oblast. Pechory, Izborsk and Panikovichi with respective parishes as well as certain areas of Slobodskaya parish were transferred to the Pskov Oblast. Exception was made for some rural areas of the borderland populated by ethnic Estonians leaving these with Estonian SSR.[106] After the fall of the Soviet Union this caused a territorial dispute that was resolved by the Russian-Estonian Border Treaty.[108][109] Some sources argue Estonia might have claims in the area.[110][111]
Sevastopol  Russia
1993 1997 On July 28, 1993, one of the leaders of the Russian Society of Crimea, Viktor Prusakov, stated that his organisation was ready for an armed mutiny and establishment of the Russian administration in Sevastopol. In May 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed the Peace and Friendship Treaty, ruling out Moscow's territorial claims to Ukraine.[112] However, the dispute would be revived after the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea in 2014.
Black Sea and Snake Island  Ukraine
2004 2009 In 2004 Romania filed a case to International Court of Justice claiming that Ukraine's Snake Island was an uninhabitable rock under UNCLOS standards and thus not eligible to carry influence over determination of the maritime boundary between the two states. During the Soviet times the island was a small naval station with a lighthouse. In 2007 the Ukrainian parliament approved an establishment of a small hamlet (settlement) there, Bile, as part of Vylkove city Odessa Region. The maritime boundary issue was settled by the International Court of Justice in 2009.
Vilnius Region  Lithuania
1920 1945 During the Polish-Soviet War Polish armies entered the Vilnius Region which was at the time part of the Soviet Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1920, Polish General Lucjan Zeligowski led a coup and established the Republic of Central Lithuania which was annexed to the Second Polish Republic after the war as part of the historic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and due to ethnic Poles in the region. Lithuania moved its capital to Kaunas while never giving up its claim to Vilnius. The Lithuanians found support in the Soviet Union for their cause signing the Soviet-Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty in 1939. Following the Soviet invasion of Poland, the region came under Soviet control and became part of the Lithuanian SSR after World War II which was followed by a large number of ethnic Poles being deported two times. Following the fall of the Soviet Union and Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania the Vilnius region became part of Lithuania again.
Passetto di Borgo in the vicinity of the Vatican City  Italy
  Holy See
1870 1991 Pope John Paul II recognized the sovereignty of Italy over the Passetto on May 18, 1991.[113][114]


Territory Former Claimants Dispute Started Dispute Settled Notes
Bouvet Island  Norway
 United Kingdom
1927 1929 The United Kingdom claimed this Antarctic island as Lindsay/Liverpool Island based on sightings going back to 1808, but Norway landed there in 1927. In November 1929, Britain renounced its claim to the island.[115]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q The Republic of China (ROC) was historically involved in territorial disputes with many governments bordering mainland China. Because the People's Republic of China stipulates acceptance of the One-China policy as a prerequisite for diplomatic relations between any nation and the PRC, the ROC has no formal diplomatic relations with any of these states. Article 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of China states that "The territory of the Republic of China according to its existing national boundaries shall not be altered except by resolution of the National Assembly." Section 5 of Article 4 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China overrides this provision, with the power of the National Assembly to alter transferred to the Legislative Yuan and the electorate. After constitutional reform in 1991, The ROC in Taiwan stopped active claim of mainland China as part of its territory[36] When the Kuomintang party temporarily regained power from 2008 to 2016, President Ma Ying-jeou stated his support for the historic claim that mainland China was part of the ROC; however, this is not the position of the current administration.[37][38]
  2. ^ a b c d Relinquished by the People's Republic of China but historically claimed by the Republic of China and may still be claimed by the opposition Kuomintang party (see note 1[note 1]).
  3. ^ The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) do not recognize each other.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Field Listing - Disputes - international, The World Factbook
  2. ^ "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  3. ^ Comunicados y notas de prensa de la OID Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b Maasho, Aaron (June 16, 2017). Dalgleish, James (ed.). "Djibouti, Eritrea in territorial dispute after Qatar peacekeepers leave". Reuters.
  6. ^ Suckling, Chris. "Eritrea's alleged seizure of disputed Djiboutian territory increases likelihood of miscalculation leading to military escalation". Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 2017-06-25. Retrieved 2017-06-27. Djibouti's foreign minister, Mahamoud Ali Youssouf, alleged in a televised address on 16 June that Eritrean forces had occupied the disputed Dumaira Mountains, immediately after Qatar withdrew a 500-strong contingent of peacekeepers without notification on 14 June.
  7. ^ "Why are Egypt and Sudan in dispute over the Hala'ib Triangle?(Quizzical)(Brief Article)". Archived from the original on 2007-11-13.
  8. ^ Brownlie, Ian (1979). African Boundaries: A Legal and Diplomatic Encyclopedia. Institute for International Affairs, Hurst and Co. pp. 867–884, 917–921.
  9. ^ Collins, Robert O. (2004). The Ilemi Triangle in: Annales d'Éthiopie. Volume 20, année 2004. pp. 5–12. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
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