The Internet (portmanteau of interconnected network) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.
The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life.
Most traditional communication media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.
The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. The overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders.
is a web browser
and Internet suite
developed by the Opera Software
company. Opera handles common Internet-related tasks such as displaying web sites, sending and receiving e-mail
messages, managing contacts, IRC online chatting
, downloading files via BitTorrent
, and reading web feeds
. Opera is offered free of charge for personal computers
and mobile phones
, but for other devices it must be paid for. Features of Opera include high performance, tabbed browsing
, page zooming
, mouse gestures
, and an integrated download manager
. Its security features include built-in phishing
protection, strong encryption when browsing secure web sites, and the ability to delete private data such as cookies
and browsing history by clicking a button. Opera runs on a variety of personal computer operating systems
, including Microsoft Windows
, Mac OS X
, and Solaris
. Although evaluations of Opera have been largely positive, Opera has had limited success on personal computers. It is currently the fourth most widely used web browser for personal computers, behind Internet Explorer
, Mozilla Firefox
, and Safari
. Opera has a stronger market share, however, on mobile devices such as mobile phones
, and personal digital assistants
A blog (a portmanteau of web log) is a website where entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic.
(March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer
and science administrator, known for his work on analog computing
, his political role in the development of the atomic bomb
, and the idea of the memex
—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web
. A leading figure in the development of the military–industrial complex
and the military funding of science
in the United States, Bush was a prominent policymaker and public intellectual ("the patron saint of American science") during World War II and the ensuing Cold War
. Through his public career, Bush was a proponent of democratic technocracy
and of the centrality of technological innovation and entrepreneurship for both economic and geopolitical security.
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