Territorial disputes of India and Nepal
Nepal claims that the river to the west of Kalapani as the main Kali River, hence it belongs to Nepal. The river borders the Nepalese district of Darchula in Sudurpashchim Pradesh province and the Indian district of Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand state. The Treaty of Sugauli signed by Kingdom of Nepal and British India on 4 March 1816 locates the Kali River as Nepal's western boundary with India. (Wikisource:Treaty of Sugauli)
Subsequent maps drawn by British surveyors show the source of the boundary river at different places. This discrepancy in locating the source of the river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims. The Kali River runs through an area that includes a disputed area of about 400 km² around the source of the river although the exact size of the disputed area varies from source to source. Kalapani has been controlled by India's Indo-Tibetan Border Police since the Sino-Indian War with China in 1962. In November 2019, there was a protest in Kathmandu opposing a new map of India showing Kalapani as part of Indian state of Uttarakhand.
Susta is an area under territorial dispute currently in Tribenisusta, Lumbini Zone, Nepal and near Nichlaul, Uttar Pradesh, India. The area under dispute totals over 14,000 hectares (140 km2) and is being controlled by India.
India shares border with Nepal from three sides. Many Nepali media have reported cases of border encroachments on the part of Indian parties in multiple border regions. Nepal claims that among 27 districts that share their border with Nepal, 72 places in 23 districts have been encroached.
Impacts on livelihood
The Indian border encroachment and Nepal government's lack of concern has impacted the lives of people living in borders. The people of Susta have been denied from building bridges or access to transportation while many report that the land they've been farming has now been taken by India.
- The World Factbook
- "Defining Himalayan borders an uphill battle". thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "The Kalapani dispute: All you need to know". Times of India. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- Panta, Ś. D. (2006). Nepal-India border problems. Dr. Shastra Dutta Pant Institute for Rural Development, Kathmandu.
- "India's Boundary Disputes with China, Nepal, and Pakistan". International Boundary Consultants website. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
- "भरतीय पक्षबाट नेपाली सीमा अतिक्रमण भएको स्वीकार". Kantipur TV.
- "भारतसंग सीमा जोडिएका २७ जिल्ला मध्ये २३ जिल्लाका ७२ स्थानमा सीमा अतिक्रमण". Mountain TV. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "India and Nepal's Slow-Motion Border Dispute". 4 January 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "बर्षौदेखि सीमा अतिक्रमणको समस्या - नवलपरासी सुस्ता". Avenues Khabar.
- "Border dispute between Nepal and India". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
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