Jump to navigation Jump to search
|<<||Selected anniversaries for March||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2019 day arrangement
- 1869 – The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev finished his design of the first periodic table.
- 1896 – Ethiopia defeated Italy at the Battle of Adwa, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.
- 1921 – The Australian cricket team, led by Warwick Armstrong (pictured), became the first team to complete a whitewash in the Ashes, something that would not be repeated for 86 years.
- 1958 – Archbishop of Chicago Samuel Stritch was appointed Pro-Prefect of the Propagation of Faith, becoming the first American member of the Roman Curia.
- 2014 – A group of knife-wielding men and women attacked passengers at Kunming railway station in Kunming, China, leaving 31 victims and 4 perpetrators dead with more than 140 others injured.
- 1484 – The College of Arms, one of the few remaining official heraldic authorities in Europe, was established by royal charter in London.
- 1919 – Communist, revolutionary socialist, and syndicalist delegates met in Moscow to establish the Communist International.
- 1949 – The B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II landed in Fort Worth, Texas, after completing the first non-stop around-the-world airplane flight in 94 hours and 1 minute.
- 1978 – As a cosmonaut on Soyuz 28, Czechoslovak military pilot Vladimír Remek (pictured) became the first person from outside the Soviet Union or the United States to go into space.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: Samuel Nicholas and the Continental Marines successfully landed on New Providence and captured Nassau in the Bahamas.
- 1875 – The first indoor game of ice hockey was played at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal by James Creighton and McGill University students.
- 1945 – Second World War: The Royal Air Force mistakenly bombed the Bezuidenhout neighbourhood in the Dutch city of The Hague, killing 511 evacuees.
- 1972 – Jethro Tull (pictured) released Thick as a Brick, a concept album supposedly written by an eight-year-old boy, Gerald Bostock.
- 2012 – Two passenger trains collided head-on near the town of Szczekociny in Poland, resulting in 16 deaths and 58 injuries.
- 856 – Trpimir I, founder of the Trpimirović dynasty of Croatia, issued a document that contained the first known usage of the name "Croats".
- 1675 – John Flamsteed (pictured) was appointed as the first Astronomer Royal of England.
- 1899 – Cyclone Mahina struck Bathurst Bay, Queensland, killing over 300 people in the deadliest natural disaster in Australian history.
- 1944 – Murder, Inc. leader Louis Buchalter was executed, becoming the only American mob boss to receive the death penalty after being convicted of murder.
- 2009 – The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity regarding his actions during the War in Darfur.
- 1279 – The Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order suffered a great loss when 71 knights died in the Battle of Aizkraukle.
- 1770 – The Boston Massacre (engraving shown): British soldiers fired into a crowd in Boston, Massachusetts.
- 1811 – Peninsular War: In the Battle of Barrosa, an Anglo-Spanish-Portuguese force trying to lift the Siege of Cádiz defeated a French attack but could not break the siege itself.
- 1966 – BOAC Flight 911 disintegrated and crashed near Mount Fuji shortly after departure from Tokyo International Airport, killing all 113 passengers and 11 crew members on board.
- 1975 – Computer hobbyists in Silicon Valley held the first meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club, whose members would go on to have great influence on the development of the personal computer.
- 1447 – Tomaso Parentucelli became Pope Nicholas V.
- 1853 – Giuseppe Verdi's La traviata premiered at Venice's La Fenice, but the performance was considered so bad that it caused the composer to revise portions of the opera.
- 1913 – First Balkan War: The Greek army captured Bizani Fortress, near Ioannina, from the Ottomans.
- 1945 – Petru Groza (pictured) of the Ploughmen's Front became the first Prime Minister of the Communist Party-dominated governments of Romania.
- 1964 – In a radio broadcast, Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad announced that American boxer Cassius Clay would change his name to Muhammad Ali.
- 1987 – The ferry Herald of Free Enterprise capsized while leaving the harbour of Zeebrugge, Belgium, killing 193 people on board.
- 1814 – War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoleon's army forced Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov's Russian troops to withdraw from the Chemin des Dames, but French casualties exceeded Russian losses.
- 1871 – José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco (pictured), became Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil, starting a four-year rule, the longest in the state's history.
- 1941 – The German submarine U-47, one of the most successful U-boats of World War II, disappeared and was lost with all hands.
- 1985 – The charity single "We Are the World" by the supergroup United Support of Artists for Africa was released, and went on to sell more than 20 million copies.
- 2009 – Two off-duty soldiers of the British Army's 38 Engineer Regiment were shot dead by the Real IRA in Antrim town, Northern Ireland.
- 1618 – German astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler discovered the third law of planetary motion.
- 1702 – Anne (pictured) became the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, succeeding William III.
- 1919 – During the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, British authorities arrested rebel leader Saad Zaghloul, exiling him to Malta.
- 1983 – Cold War: During a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando, Florida, U.S. President Ronald Reagan described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire".
- 2017 – The Azure Window, a limestone natural arch in Gozo, Malta, collapsed during a storm.
- 1776 – The Wealth of Nations by Scottish political economist Adam Smith (bust pictured) was first published, becoming the first modern work in the field of economics.
- 1862 – American Civil War: In the world's first battle between two ironclad warships, USS Monitor and CSS Virginia fought to a draw near the mouth of Hampton Roads in Virginia.
- 1932 – Éamon de Valera, one of the dominant political figures in 20th-century Ireland, became President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State.
- 1944 – World War II: As part of the Battle of Narva, the Soviet Air Forces heavily bombed Tallinn, Estonia, killing up to 800 people, mostly civilians.
- 2010 – The first legal U.S. same-sex marriages south of the Mason–Dixon line took place in Washington, D.C.
- 1915 – First World War: The Battle of Neuve Chapelle opened, the first deliberately planned British offensive of the war.
- 1949 – Mildred Gillars, nicknamed "Axis Sally", was convicted of treason for working with the Nazis as a broadcaster.
- 1965 – Thomas Playford, Premier of South Australia, left office after 27 years, the longest term of any democratically elected leader in the history of Australia.
- 1967 – British progressive rock band Pink Floyd released their first single, "Arnold Layne".
- 1975 – Ho Chi Minh Campaign: North Vietnam began its final push for victory over South Vietnam with an attack on Ban Me Thuot.
- 2006 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter attained orbit around Mars (artist's impression shown).
- 1845 – Māori forces led by chiefs Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke attacked the British settlement of Kororareka in New Zealand, beginning the Flagstaff War.
- 1864 – The Great Sheffield Flood killed at least 240 people and damaged more than 600 homes, after a crack in the Dale Dyke Dam (pictured) caused it to fail.
- 1941 – World War II: The Lend-Lease Act was signed into law, allowing the United States to supply the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war materiel.
- 1999 – Infosys became the first Indian-registered company to have its shares listed on NASDAQ.
- 2009 – A teenage gunman engaged in a shooting spree at a secondary school in Winnenden, Germany, killing 16, including himself.
- 1881 – Andrew Watson made his debut with the Scotland national football team and became the world's first black international footballer.
- 1930 – Gandhi (pictured with Sarojini Naidu) began the Salt March, a 24-day walk to defy the British tax on salt in colonial India.
- 1971 – The Turkish Armed Forces executed a "coup by memorandum", forcing the resignation of Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel.
- 1989 – Tim Berners-Lee issued the first proposal for what would become the World Wide Web, when he wrote a document to CERN with details of an information-management system
- 2014 – A gas leak caused an explosion in the East Harlem neighborhood of New York City, destroying two apartment buildings and causing eight deaths.
- 1697 – Nojpetén, capital of the Itza Maya kingdom, fell to Spanish conquistadors, the final step in the Spanish conquest of Guatemala.
- 1781 – Astronomer and composer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus while in the garden of his house in Bath, England, thinking it was a comet.
- 1920 – The Kapp Putsch (pictured) briefly ousted the Weimar Republic government from Berlin.
- 1962 – Lyman Lemnitzer, the Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, presented to the Secretary of Defense a false flag conspiracy plan, Operation Northwoods, intended to create public support for a war against Fidel Castro and Cuba.
- 1985 – One of England's worst incidents of football hooliganism occurred when supporters of Luton Town and Millwall rioted before a match at Kenilworth Road stadium.
- 1593 – Japanese invasions of Korea: A Korean force of 3,000 soldiers successfully defended Haengju Fortress against an invading Japanese force of 30,000 men.
- 1885 – The Mikado (poster pictured), Gilbert and Sullivan's most frequently performed Savoy opera, debuted at the Savoy Theatre in London.
- 1945 – The Royal Air Force first used the Grand Slam, a 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) earthquake bomb, on a strategic railway viaduct in Bielefeld, Germany.
- 1969 – Edward M. Burke, the longest-serving alderman in the history of the Chicago City Council, was sworn into office.
- 1984 – Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin, was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt by Ulster Freedom Fighters in central Belfast, Northern Ireland.
- 1147 – Portuguese troops under the leadership of Afonso I captured the Almoravid city of Santarém.
- 1783 – A potential uprising in Newburgh, New York, was defused when George Washington asked Continental Army officers to support the supremacy of Congress.
- 1927 – In rowing, Oxford defeated Cambridge in the first Women's Boat Race (2015 edition pictured) held in Oxford, England.
- 1951 – The Iranian oil industry was nationalized in a movement led by Mohammad Mosaddegh.
- 2011 – Arab Spring: Protests erupted across Syria against the authoritarian government, marking the start of the Syrian Civil War.
- 1190 – Around 150 Jews died inside York Castle (pictured), with the majority committing mass suicide to avoid being killed by a mob.
- 1782 – American Revolutionary War: Spain captured the island of Roatán off the coast of what is now Honduras.
- 1935 – Conscription was re-introduced in Germany by the Nazi regime, and the German military was renamed the Wehrmacht.
- 1984 – William Buckley, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, was kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists.
- 2014 – Annexation of Crimea: The Autonomous Republic of Crimea held a controversial referendum where voters overwhelmingly chose to join Russia as a federal subject.
- 455 – After arranging for the assassination of Valentinian III, Petronius Maximus secured the throne of the Western Roman Empire, only to be killed 11 weeks later during the sack of Rome.
- 1677 – Franco-Dutch War: France captured the town of Valenciennes in the Spanish Netherlands.
- 1860 – The First Taranaki War began at Waitara, marking an important phase of the New Zealand Wars.
- 1969 – Golda Meir (pictured) became the first female Prime Minister of Israel.
- 1979 – The Penmanshiel Tunnel in the Scottish Borders region of Scotland collapsed during refurbishing construction, killing two workers, and leading to the abandonment of the tunnel.
- 1793 – War of the First Coalition: Habsburg Austrians together with Dutch Republic troops repulsed a series of French assaults after bitter fighting in Neerwinden, present-day Belgium.
- 1892 – Lord Stanley of Preston pledged to donate an award for Canada's top-ranked amateur ice hockey club, now known as the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America.
- 1906 – Romanian inventor Traian Vuia became the first person to fly a heavier-than-air monoplane (pictured) with an unassisted takeoff.
- 1969 – Vietnam War: The United States began secretly bombing the Sihanouk Trail in Cambodia, used by communist forces to infiltrate South Vietnam.
- 1996 – The deadliest fire in Philippine history burned a nightclub in Quezon City, leaving 162 dead.
- 1279 – Emperor Bing, the last emperor of the Song dynasty, died during the Battle of Yamen, bringing the dynasty to an end after three centuries.
- 1865 – American Civil War: The last battle of the Carolinas Campaign, the Battle of Bentonville, began, which contributed to the ultimate Union victory in the war.
- 1911 – The first International Women's Day was held, having been established by, among others, German socialist politician Clara Zetkin (pictured).
- 1979 – The American cable television network C-SPAN, dedicated to airing non-stop coverage of government proceedings and public affairs programming, was launched.
- 2011 – Libyan Civil War: The French Air Force launched Opération Harmattan, beginning foreign military intervention in Libya.
- 235 – Maximinus Thrax (bust pictured) succeeded to the throne of the Roman Empire, a so-called barracks emperor who gained power by virtue of his command of the army.
- 1852 – Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was first published, profoundly affecting attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States.
- 1923 – The Arts Club of Chicago hosted the opening of Pablo Picasso's first United States showing, entitled Original Drawings by Pablo Picasso, becoming an early proponent of modern art in the U.S.
- 1939 – Germany issued an ultimatum to Lithuania, demanding they return the Klaipėda Region under threat of invasion.
- 1993 – The Troubles: The second of two bomb attacks by the Provisional IRA in Warrington, England, killed two children.
- 1814 – War of the Sixth Coalition: At the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, Napoleon suddenly realized his army was vastly outnumbered and hurriedly ordered a retreat.
- 1861 – Vice President of the Confederate States of America Alexander H. Stephens (pictured) extemporaneously gave the "Cornerstone Speech", in which he laid out the Confederacy's causes for declaring secession.
- 1937 – A police squad, acting under orders from Governor of Puerto Rico Blanton Winship, opened fire on demonstrators protesting the arrest of Puerto Rican Nationalist leader Pedro Albizu Campos, killing 21 people and injuring 235 others.
- 1983 – In the West Bank, a number of Palestinian girls complained of breathing difficulties due to strange odors, leading to accusations of poison gas.
- 2006 – A man using a hammer smashed the statue of Phra Phrom in the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok, Thailand, and was subsequently beaten to death by bystanders.
- 1508 – Ferdinand II of Aragon appointed Amerigo Vespucci (pictured) to the post of Chief Navigator of Spain.
- 1638 – Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her participation in the Antinomian Controversy.
- 1913 – Phan Xích Long, the self-proclaimed Emperor of Vietnam, was arrested for organising a revolt against the colonial rule of French Indochina, which was nevertheless carried out by his supporters the following day.
- 1942 – Second World War: The Royal Navy confronted Italy's Regia Marina at the Second Battle of Sirte in the Mediterranean Sea near the Gulf of Sirte.
- 2014 – A massive landslide in Oso, Washington, killed 43 people after engulfing a rural neighborhood, the largest death toll for a standalone landslide in U.S. history.
- 1775 – American Revolution: Patrick Henry made his "Give me liberty, or give me death!" speech to the House of Burgesses of Virginia, urging military action against the British Empire.
- 1848 – Scottish settlers on the John Wickliffe, captained by William Cargill, arrived at what is now Port Chalmers in the Otago Region of New Zealand.
- 1931 – Bhagat Singh (pictured), one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement, and two others were executed by British authorities.
- 1989 – Two researchers announced the discovery of cold fusion, a claim which was later discredited.
- 2007 – The Iranian military arrested 15 Royal Navy personnel, claiming that they had entered Iran's territorial waters.
- 1882 – German physician Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (pictured), a bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
- 1922 – Irish War of Independence: In Belfast, two men wearing police uniforms broke into a house and murdered a Catholic family in what was believed to be a reprisal for the deaths of two policemen the day before.
- 1976 – Military leaders in Argentina led by Jorge Rafael Videla deposed President Isabel Perón in a coup d'état, established a military junta known as the National Reorganization Process, and began state-sponsored violence against dissidents known as the Dirty War.
- 1989 – The tanker Exxon Valdez spilled 10.8 million US gallons (260,000 bbl; 41,000 m3) of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing one of the most devastating man-made maritime environmental disasters.
- 1410 – The Yongle Emperor of Ming dynasty China launched the first of his military campaigns against the Mongols, resulting in the fall of the Mongol khan Bunyashiri.
- 1655 – Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan, the largest natural satellite of the planet Saturn.
- 1807 – The Slave Trade Act became law, abolishing the slave trade in the British Empire.
- 1949 – The Soviet Union began mass deportations of more than 90,000 people from the Baltic states to Siberia.
- 1975 – King Faisal of Saudi Arabia (pictured) was shot and killed by his nephew Faisal bin Musaid.
- 1344 – Reconquista: The Muslim city of Algeciras surrendered after a 21-month siege and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Castile.
- 1484 – William Caxton printed the first English translation of Aesop's Fables.
- 1939 – Spanish Civil War: Nationalists began their final offensive of the war, at the end of which they controlled almost the entire country.
- 1979 – By signing the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, Egypt became the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel.
- 1999 – Jack Kevorkian, an American advocate for and practitioner of physician-assisted suicide, was found guilty of murder in the death of a terminally ill patient.
- 1794 – To protect American merchant ships from Barbary pirates, Congress passed the Naval Act to authorize the building of six frigates (USS Constitution pictured) which eventually became the U.S. Navy.
- 1899 – Philippine–American War: For the only time during the course of the war, Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo personally led troops against the U.S. in the Battle of Marilao River.
- 1981 – The Solidarity movement in Poland staged a warning strike, the biggest strike in the history of the Eastern Bloc, in which at least 12 million Poles walked off their jobs for four hours.
- 1999 – During the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, an Army of Yugoslavia shot down a U.S. Air Force F-117 stealth aircraft.
- 2009 – The dam holding Situ Gintung, an artificial lake in Tangerang District, Indonesia, failed, resulting in floods killing at least 100 people.
- 193 – Praetorian Guards assassinated Roman emperor Pertinax and sold the Imperial office in an auction to Didius Julianus.
- 1802 – German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers discovered 2 Pallas, the second asteroid ever identified.
- 1930 – Turkey changed the name of its largest city Constantinople to Istanbul.
- 1979 – British Prime Minister James Callaghan (pictured) was defeated by one vote in a motion of no confidence by the House of Commons after his government struggled to cope with widespread strikes during the "Winter of Discontent".
- 1999 – Serbian police and special forces killed at least 89 Kosovo Albanians in the village of Izbica, in the Drenica region of central Kosovo.
- 1461 – Yorkist troops defeated Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Towton (memorial pictured) in Yorkshire, England, the largest battle in the Wars of the Roses up until that time with 28,000 casualties.
- 1638 – Swedish settlers founded New Sweden near Delaware Bay, the first Swedish colony in America.
- 1941 – The North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement to define technical standards for AM band radio stations came into effect.
- 1969 – The New People's Army, the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines, was formed.
- 1999 – The strongest earthquake to hit the foothills of the Himalayas in more than ninety years killed 103 people.
- 1842 – American physician Crawford Long became the first person to use diethyl ether as an anesthetic in a surgical procedure.
- 1861 – British chemist William Crookes announced his discovery of thallium, which he had done using flame spectroscopy.
- 1918 – Fighting began during the March Days revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in over 14,000 deaths.
- 1964 – Jeopardy! (host Alex Trebek pictured), the popular American game show created by Merv Griffin, made its debut on the NBC television network.
- 2009 – Twelve gunmen attacked the Manawan Police Academy in Lahore, Pakistan, and held it for several hours before security forces could retake it.
- 1492 – The Catholic Monarchs of Spain issued the Alhambra Decree, ordering all Jews to convert to Christianity or be expelled from the country.
- 1854 – U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry (Japanese depiction pictured) and the Tokugawa shogunate signed the Convention of Kanagawa, forcing the opening of Japanese ports to American trade.
- 1889 – The Eiffel Tower was inaugurated in Paris, becoming a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world.
- 1901 – A magnitude 7.2 earthquake struck the Black Sea, the most powerful ever recorded in the area.
- 1942 – Second World War: Because of a mutiny by Indian soldiers against their British officers, Japanese troops captured Christmas Island without any resistance.